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Note taking in EGR115. notebook slide number in margin. comments on the right. write down vocabulary words write down overall ideas write down things that we repeat 4 or 5 times! write down possible errors printout of slides print 2 or 3 slides per page draw arrows, add your comments

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note taking in egr115
Note taking in EGR115
  • notebook
    • slide number in margin. comments on the right.
    • write down vocabulary words
    • write down overall ideas
    • write down things that we repeat 4 or 5 times!
    • write down possible errors
  • printout of slides
    • print 2 or 3 slides per page
    • draw arrows, add your comments
    • highlight
introduction to computers and programming

Introduction to Computers and Programming

History of computers (4 slides)

What is a computer system?

What is software?

What is programming?

Different languages

Compiled vs. interpreted

history of computers
History of Computers

Computers ≠ calculators

Computers are programmable. The first calculators were not programmable, hence not considered computers.

History 1/4

1854 150 years ago pioneer of modern computer
1854 (~150 years ago) - Pioneer of modern computer!

Babbage’s difference engine

Device to subtract adjacent valuesin a column of numbers. Created for engineers in charge of creating tables of logarithms and trigonometric functions.

History 2/4

1943 70 years ago came colossus
1943 (~70 years ago) .. came Colossus
  • Primarily used for breaking the German codes during World War 2.
  • It would crack Enigma Codes (codes that were cracked by exhaustively shifting text by arbitrary amounts). For example:

‘Zsszbjzs 9599’ would be

‘Attack at 0600’

History 3/4

finally the von neumann architecture
Finally, the von Neumann Architecture…
  • The Von Neumanncomputer architecture is mostly what we still use today. The architecture separates a computer in 3 major parts:
    • The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    • The computer memory
    • The Input/Output (I/O) devices

?

?

CPU + memory

Screen=output

Mouse=input

Speakers=output

Knob=input

Keyboard=input

History 4/4

software and programming
Software and programming?
  • Microsoft Word, Excel, Guitar Hero, the address book in your cell phone, the electronic that starts a car, the avionics in an airplane… are all softwarethat were written by people.
  • Programming is the act of writing logical instructions that will be executed when people use the software.
  • It is as difficult as learning to speak a foreign language, since the programmer is constrained to the vocabulary (specific keywords) and grammar (exact syntax) of programming.

( ) ‘ ’ , ;

if for else while switch case otherwise end input fprintf

a computer system today
A computer system today
  • Keeping the von Neumann architecture, today’s computing systems combine both hardware and software.
    • Hardware (i.e. what’s hard and can break..): mouse, keyboard, monitor, hard disk, printer, CD, DVD.
    • Software i.e. the programs that describe the steps we want the computer to perform.
trivia 1
Trivia 1
  • An actual DVD is:

a) hardware

b) software

  • The content on a Microsoft Office DVD is most likely:

a) hardware

b) software

categories of software
Categories of software
  • Software contains the instructions the CPU uses to run programs.
  • There are several categories, including:
    • Operating systems (OS) – manager of the computer system as a whole
    • Software applications – commercial programs that have been written to solve specific problems
    • Language compilers - to ‘translate’ programs written by people into something understandable by the machine (sometimes not needed)
trivia 2
Trivia 2
  • Which type of software are these? ________
trivia 3
Trivia 3
  • What type of software are these?____________
generations of languages used to write software
Generations of Languages used to write software

1) Machine language – also

called binary language.

Sequence of 0’s and 1’s.

2) Assembly language – each line of code produces a single machine instruction (add, subtract…)

3) High-level language – slightly closer to spoken languages.

add b,c

add a,b

a= a + b + c;

This line does the same as the two above.

trivia 4
Trivia 4
  • Order these types of languages in the order they came out?
    • assembly language
    • machine language
    • high-level language
finally matlab
Finally… MATLAB
  • Is an interpretedlanguage – does not require compilation, but it does have a compilation step hidden from the user.
  • Has an interactiveenvironment –
    • “In the MATLAB environment, you can develop and execute programs that contain MATLAB commands. You can execute a MATLAB command, observe the results, and then execute another MATLAB command that interacts with the information in memory, observe its results and so on.”
internet vs www
Internet vs. WWW?
  • Internet is the “boss” of all communication tools, including www but also servers, etc…
wrapping up
Wrapping Up
  • Computers vs. Calculators?
  • Evolution of computers from WW2?
  • Von Neumann Architecture?
  • Hardware vs. software?
  • Types of software?
  • Types of languages?
  • MATLAB?
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