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Chapter 15. Modulation. Modulation. Modulation is the process that results in the shift of the tonal center. In other words, a key change. Most modulations occur between closely related keys. A closely related key is a key that differs by no more than one accidental in the key signature

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chapter 15

Chapter 15

Modulation

modulation
Modulation
  • Modulation is the process that results in the shift of the tonal center. In other words, a key change.
  • Most modulations occur between closely related keys. A closely related key is a key that differs by no more than one accidental in the key signature
  • An easy way to understand modulation is observe the ebb and flow of circle progressions.
modulation1
Modulation
  • 3 Types that we will focus on:
    • Common Chord
    • Chromatic
    • Phrase
common chord
Common Chord
  • Both keys have a chord that is common in each respective key
  • This offers a smooth transition to the new key because the chord is diatonic in both keys
  • Also called a pivot chord because it is a middle ground between two keys
  • Called a Common Chord Modulation
chromatic
Chromatic
  • Occurs at the point of a chromatic progression
  • The letter name remains the same but has an accidental
  • Occurs when the two keys are not closely related
  • DOES NOT HAVE A COMMON CHORD!
  • Called a chromatic modulation
phrase
Phrase
  • Also known as a direct modulation
  • Occurs between phrases, periods, or larger sections where a phrase cadences in one key, and the next phrase begins in the new key
analytical symbols
Analytical Symbols
  • Use the following symbols to analyze modulations:
    • Common chord modulations – select the common chord and analyze it in both keys:

C: I ii6 V I vi6

G: ii6 V I

    • Other types of modulation – name the new key and adjust chord analysis accordingly:

G: I V I a: V6 i V i

how to spot a modulation
How to spot a modulation
  • Play the music you are analyzing. This can sometimes be sufficient to recognize a modulation.
  • Look for accidentals that are not part of the established key.
  • Look for a cadence in the new key. Look for V-I, I-V, IV-V.
  • If you have enough evidence to support a modulation, look back to the first accidental and determine whether the chord before it can be analyzed in both keys. If so, you have a common chord modulation
  • If the nondiatonic (the accidental) note is taken chromatically, then you have a chromatic modulation.
secondary dominant vs modulation
Secondary Dominant vs. Modulation
  • Secondary dominants have one accidental (nondiatonic note) in only one chord.
  • Will usually resolve to its temporary tonic.
  • Carefully observe the progression.
  • If the progression seems odd, then a modulation has probably taken place.
  • Not all modulations will have an accidental.
macro analysis
Macro Analysis

Analyze and entire section with the macro analysis letter symbols. Do this before considering key centers or Roman numerals.

After completing the macro, go back and read through the analysis. Pay attention to symbols that change from the established pattern at the beginning.

macro analysis1
Macro Analysis

After different symbols are identified, scan the area containing the new symbol to determine where the modulation beings and ends. Study the score both before and after the symbol change.

Complete the macro with circle progression slurs.

When the macro analysis is completed, add key indications and Roman numerals.