Unit8. Ethnic Identity. In this chapter, you will learn how to. READING MATERIALS. Reading 1. Ethnic Boundary Markers. Reading 2. The Problems of States and Nationalities. Reading 1 Ethnic Boundary Markers. Think and Discuss. Which ethnic group do you belong to?.
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Reading 1. Ethnic Boundary Markers
Reading 2. The Problems of States
Ethnic Boundary Markers
you belong to?
people of one ethnic
group from another?
The Han ethnic group is the largest, living all over the country with the compact communities in the Huanghe, Changjiang and Zhujiang valleys and the Songhua-Liaohe Plain of the northeast.
The other ethnic groups are the minority nationalities, inhabiting 60 percent of the country's total area and living mainly in the border regions.
All ethnic groups are like equal brothers and sisters in a happy family.
Ethnic groups are different from each other in language, religion, physical appearance and particular cultural traits.
ethnic boundary marker
extent to which one identifies with a particular ethnic group; one’s sense of belonging to an ethnic group and the part of one’s thinking, perceptions, feelings, and behavior that is due to ethnic group membership.
4 major components of ethnic identity: ethnic awareness, ethnic self-identification, ethnic attitudes and ethnic behaviors
Serbs and Croats both speak Serbo-Croatian;
The Irish may speak Gaelic or English; Ethnic Germans may speak Polish or Russian other than German
Jews adhere to Judaism; Sikhs adhere to Sikhism; Serbs and Croats adhere respectively to Eastern Orthodox and Catholics
A Chinese person may adhere to Muslim, Christianity, Taoism, Buddhism or Marxist atheism
Major Croats adhere respectively to Eastern Orthodox and Catholics
Christianity Croats adhere respectively to Eastern Orthodox and Catholics
Buddhism Croats adhere respectively to Eastern Orthodox and Catholics
Islam Croats adhere respectively to Eastern Orthodox and Catholics
the third marker Croats adhere respectively to Eastern Orthodox and Catholics
Malays, East Indians and Chinese in Malaysia are distinguished by physical characteristics
Germans, Dutch, Danes and other northern European ethnic groups, Zulus and Swazis, Chinese and Koreans, Choctaw and Chichasaw Indians share similar physical characteristics; at a lower level of identity, physical characteristics alone are not enough to distinguish between ethnic groups
the fourth marker distinguished by physical characteristics
Scottish Americans wear kilts; German Americans wear lederhosen; Native Americans wear “Indian clothes”; Guatemalan clothing styles indicate two levels of ethnic identity
Outline for Reading 1 lederhosen; Native Americans wear “Indian clothes”; Guatemalan clothing styles indicate two levels of ethnic identity
overt covert lederhosen; Native Americans wear “Indian clothes”; Guatemalan clothing styles indicate two levels of ethnic identity
Overt factors used to demonstrate or denote group membership are called ethnic boundary markers. (Line 2)
overt lederhosen; Native Americans wear “Indian clothes”; Guatemalan clothing styles indicate two levels of ethnic identitya. open and observable
coverta. not open, secret
a covert glance
denote lederhosen; Native Americans wear “Indian clothes”; Guatemalan clothing styles indicate two levels of ethnic identityv.(denotation n.)
The word “plump” denotes fat.
vt. mark; indicate; signify
A frown often denotes ________.
A quick pulse often denotes ________.
vt. imply in addition to literal meaning
The word “plump” connotes cheerfulness.
Because they serve to lederhosen; Native Americans wear “Indian clothes”; Guatemalan clothing styles indicate two levels of ethnic identitydistinguish members from all other groups, a single boundary marker seldom is sufficient. (Line 5)
distinguish v.(distinguished adj.)
……, lederhosen; Native Americans wear “Indian clothes”; Guatemalan clothing styles indicate two levels of ethnic identityHopi and Navajo members are readily distinguished by their language alone. (Line 13)
readilyadv. easily; willingly; promptly
Conversely lederhosen; Native Americans wear “Indian clothes”; Guatemalan clothing styles indicate two levels of ethnic identity, a person may be Irish and speak either Gaelic or English as his or her native language. (Line 19)
Expression to show opposition of two things or situations:
but, yet, however, despite, in spite of, though, although, even though, otherwise, rather, whereas, nonetheless, nevertheless, in contrast, alternatively, for all that, on the one hand, on the other hand
But in many cases, religion and ethnic group more or less lederhosen; Native Americans wear “Indian clothes”; Guatemalan clothing styles indicate two levels of ethnic identitycorrespond. (Line 28)
Similarly, the Sikhs in India lederhosen; Native Americans wear “Indian clothes”; Guatemalan clothing styles indicate two levels of ethnic identityconstitute both a religious and an ethnic group. (Line 30)
A similar situation is found in those regions of the world in which populations have been in long association with one another. (Line 40)
For the sake of in which populations have been in long brevity, we will limit our discussion to one trait--- clothing. (Line 66)
for the sake of
Difficult Sentences in which populations have been in long
1. However, just because two populations share a common language does not mean they share a common identity, any more than the fact that two populations speak different languages means that they have two distinct identities.
Two populations who share a common language do not necessarily share a common identity; likewise, two populations who speak different languages do not necessarily have different identities.
2. The significance or lack of significance of physical characteristics in ethnic identity may also vary with the level of ethnic identity.
How significant physical characteristics are as a significant marker of ethnic identity depends on on which level the ethnic group members share their characteristics.
3. The major world religions such as Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism encompass numerous distinct ethnic groups, so that the religious affiliation does not always indicate ethnic affiliation.
The members of a religion may come from many different ethnic groups, so a religious group is not necessarily an ethnic one.
Reading 2 and Buddhism encompass numerous distinct ethnic groups, so that the religious affiliation does not always indicate ethnic affiliation.
The Problems of
States and Nationalities
Think and Discuss and Buddhism encompass numerous distinct ethnic groups, so that the religious affiliation does not always indicate ethnic affiliation.
Ethnic Conflicts in Israel and Palestine and Buddhism encompass numerous distinct ethnic groups, so that the religious affiliation does not always indicate ethnic affiliation.
The two nationalities, Israelis and Palestinians, claim the same geographical region as their legitimate homeland.
Peace efforts for the resolution of the ethnic conflicts in Israel and Palestine
UN Security Council Resolution 242 (Nov. 22, 1967)
UN Security Council Resolution 338 (Oct. 22, 1973)
Geneva Peace Conference (Oct. 21, 1973)
UN Assembly Resolution 3236 (Nov. 11, 1974)
David Camp Agreement (Sept. 17, 1978)
Ethnic conflicts in Northern Ireland Israel and Palestine
The Scotch-Irish have emerged over the past 400 years as a distinct nationality who claim the northern part of Ireland as their homeland. In contrast, the Irish see the area as an integral and inalienable part of the Irish homeland.
Outline for Reading 2 Israel and Palestine
Words and Israel and Palestine
Falsely Israel and Palestineequating country of origin with ethnic nationality, …… (Line 3)
vt. to consider or treat as equal
It’s a mistake to equate wealth with happiness.
I am not equating you and him.
vt. to make … equal
to equate imports and exports.
Bombings, ambushes, and assassinations have Israel and Palestineclaimed the lives of more than 2,200 persons, and no end appears in sight. (Line 27)
Only a Israel and Palestinehandful of countries are peopled by members of a single nationality and are thus ethnically homogeneous. (Line 58)
handfuln. a few
a handful of people/days
Words ending with –ful indicating the amount:
a handful of sand
a mouthful of sweet air
a spoonful of hot soup
people Israel and Palestine
vt. to inhabit
The region is sparsely/densely peopled.
vt. to supply or fill with people
Europe largely peopled America.
vt. to fill with
Dreams peopled his idle hours.
homogeneous Israel and Palestine: of the similar nature or kind
record n./record v. August n./august a.
fair n./fair a. bear n./bear v.
Through this agreement, the English, French, Germans, Belgians, and other European powers assumed sovereignty over lands …… (Line 67)
vt. to take control of
Hitler assumed power in 1934.
vt. to take into partnership, employment, or use
The researcher assumed a new partner.
assume Belgians, and other European powers
vt. to take to or upon oneself, undertake
When did the president assume office?
vt. to pretend to have or be
She assumed an air of confidence in spite of her dismay.
vt. to take as granted or true, suppose
He assumed the report (to be) valid.
Farmers will have a bumper harvest, assuming that the weather is favorable.
Nor Belgians, and other European powers was Africa the only continent to have boundaries imposed by Europeans. (Line 70)
nor, never, seldom, rarely, little, hardly, scarcely, not until, by no means, in no time, under no circumstances, under no condition, in no way, in no case, in vain, at no time, neither…(nor), no sooner…(than), hardly…(when), barely, on no account, not a bit, nowhere, not only…(but also), not often, etc.
Examples: Belgians, and other European powers
I have never heard such nonsense in all my life.
Never in all my life have I heard such nonsense.
Churchill was not only a statesman but also a poet.
Not onlywas Churchill a statesman, but also a poet.
Not a word was said.
Scarcely a drop of rain fell last month.
Only an old man took pity on the poor girl.
impose Belgians, and other European powers
vt. to establish or bring about as if by force.
The court imposed a light sentence on a first offender.
vt. to establish or apply by authority
to impose a tax/peace settlement
vt. to force into the company or on the attention of another
She imposed herself as their leader.
vi. to take unwarranted advantage of something
You are always imposing on his good nature!
As European powers Belgians, and other European powers granted independence to their colonies, …… (Line 83)
You may grant ________.
a scholarship to a student
luggage allowances to passengers
Granted that you are correct, you may find it hard to prove your point.
Difficult Sentence Belgians, and other European powers
Falsely equating country of origin with ethnic nationality, we view ethnic conflicts in other regions of the world as comparable to conflicts between sub-national groups within the United States.
For we consider country of origin and ethnic nationality are the same, we falsely think ethnic conflicts (between distinct ethnic nationalities) in most countries equivalent to conflicts (between sub-national groups of different countries of origin) within the United States.
WRITING KNOWLEDGE Belgians, and other European powers
Support your opinion with evidence, e.g., anecdotes, examples, quotations, statistics, logic or definitions.
Writing Exercise Belgians, and other European powers
Please identify the type of evidence used in each of the following paragraphs and infer the thesis it supports.
Example Belgians, and other European powers
First of all, there are many superstitious factors in our traditional culture that should be abandoned. For example, in ancient times people thought earthquakes were the wrath of the Gods, and offered sacrifices--- sometimes human sacrifices--- to appease them. But nowadays we know that earthquakes are mere geological movements of lithosphere; we can even predict them. The development of science and technology helps to dispel the mist and explain many phenomena that we thought of as mysteries in the past.
Possible thesis: Some aspects of traditional culture are now hampering the progress of society and should be abandoned.
As you can well see, the computer industry is supplying more jobs than any other single industry. Occupation Outlook Quarterly predicts that by 1990, 2,140,000 people will be employed in computer operations, a rise of 85 percent over 1978.
Possible thesis: Instead of replacing people, the computer is developing more positions for employees.
Quotation more jobs than any other single industry.
According to Encyclopedia Britannica, “Euphemisms are considered overly squeamish and affected by contemporary writers, unless used for humorous effect.” This may be so among the cognoscenti but there is little evidence to show that the masses, especially the administrators, have read their encyclopedia.
Possible thesis: The use of euphemism should be stopped.
Definition more jobs than any other single industry.
Love is one of the precious feelings of human beings, which is known as the immortal theme of literary works. True love cannot happen, develop and last without sincerity, understanding, sacrifice, tolerance and time-endurance.
Possible thesis: True love cannot happen, develop and last without sincerity, understanding, sacrifice, tolerance and time-endurance.
Logic more jobs than any other single industry.
In a world where “man” and “human” are offered as synonymous terms, I don’t think it is a coincidence that women are still vastly underrepresented in positions of money, power, and respect.
Possible thesis: What words “mean” can go beyond what a speaker or writer consciously intends, reflecting personal and cultural biases that run so deep that most of the time we aren’t even aware they exist.
LET’S WRITE more jobs than any other single industry.
Are you ethnocentric or multicultural in your worldview? Explain your choice and try to persuade others to believe in your worldview. You should write at least 150 words.
main types of text more jobs than any other single industry.
Translation Exercise more jobs than any other single industry.
Appreciate the following texts and their translations and sum up the characteristics of the translation of the 3 types of text.
I remember that the Gabilian Mountains to the east of the valley were light gay mountains full of sun and loveliness and a kind of invitation, so that you wanted to climb into their warm foothills almost as you want to climb into the lap of a beloved mother. They were beckoning mountains with a brown grass love.
Because it (oil) is very slippery, it is used for lubrication. Two metal surfaces rubbing together cause friction and heat; but if they are separated by a thin film of oil, the friction and heat are reduced. No machine would work for long if it were not properly lubricated. The oil used for this purpose must be of the correct thickness; if it is too thin it will not give enough lubrication, and if it is too thick it will reach all parts that must be lubricated.
We faced the question in 1978, as to some extent we still do today: Can two nations as different as ours--- yours one of the oldest civilizations on earth, mine one the youngest; yours a socialist state and mine committed to capitalism; yours a developing country and mine a developed one--- can two nations surmount and indeed draw upon these differences to build an unprecedented and distinctive relationship ion world affairs?