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Let us begin with a song…. Ho, ho, Watanay Ho, ho, Watanay Ho, ho, Watanay Ki-yo-ki-na Ki-yo-ki-na. http://www.mamalisa.com/?t=es&p=71&c=17. The Mohawk Indians. Background/History. They call themselves Kanienkehaka meaning people of the flint.
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Let us begin with a song… Ho, ho, WatanayHo, ho, WatanayHo, ho, WatanayKi-yo-ki-naKi-yo-ki-na http://www.mamalisa.com/?t=es&p=71&c=17
Background/History • They call themselves Kanienkehaka meaning people of the flint. • Started in New York and northern Pennsylvania -ended up fleeing to Canada in the 1700s. • They were part of the Iroquois people • Tribal council had been chosen by clan mothers. • Nine Mohawk chiefs represented them with the Iroquois council • Lived in villages of longhouses- 100 feet long holding up to 60 people • Women made the major decisions in Mohawk clan • All took part in storytelling, art, music, and medicine. • Children play with each other, go to school, and help around the house
Location/Range • Originally located at Mohawk Valley in upstate New York • Also lived in southern Quebec and eastern Ontario • In mid 1600s the Mohawks relocated to two reservations in Montreal • After that, the Indians decided to live in Six Nations of the Grand River in Ontario • Now they live throughout the state of New York and southeastern Canada
Food/Diet/Farming • Squash, beans, corn, and wild berries • Hunted deer, elk, and fished. • Cornbread, soups, and stews.
Mohawk English • Enhskat • Tekeni • Ahsen • Ronikwe • Yakonikwe • Karahkwa • Ehnita • Ohneika • Raterennotha • one • two • three • man • woman • sun • moon • water • sing
Religion/Ceremonies • The Great Spirit was responsible for creation • Guided the lives of the ordinary people • They burnt tobacco which was supposed to carry their prayers to lesser spirits • Dreams were looked at as supernatural signs and were interpreted carefully • Religious ceremonies were held mainly for farming, curing illness, and thanksgiving
Home Life/Family Structure • Children often went hunting and fishing with their fathers • Mohawk girls played with corn husk dolls • Mohawk boys had fun by trying to throw a dart through a moving hoop. • Lacrosse was a popular sport among boys and men of the Mohawk Tribe
Clothing • Men- breechcloths with leggings and moccasins • Women - wrap around skirts with shorter leggings or overdresses • Colonial times - European cloth shirts and blouses covered with beads and ribbons • Headdresses • Men - traditional Iroquois headdresses Women - beaded tiaras
Customs • Ceremonies were held in special longhouses • Six big festivals were held each year • Each festival had days of dance and music • “The festivals included the New Year Festival in the winter, the Maple Festival in spring, the Corn Planting Festival, the Strawberry Festival, the Green Corn Festival, and the Harvest Festival of Thanksgiving.” • At festivals, they would often dress up as birds, animals, and monsters to entertain others.
Recreational Activities • Played games to increase their strength and agility • A game played in the winter was called “snowsnake” it was when they cut a path in the snow and putting water on it to make a smooth surface then slid on it and whoever went the farthest won • Played a game called “darts” where there were 2 teams and each was giving darts or spears. A hoop was rolled in front of them and they had to throw the darts through the hoop. Team with the best accuracy won. • Lacrosse was their favorite game by far • Played with a stick with a net on the end, a ball made of wood or animal skin, and a goal post at both ends of a field • The games would sometimes go on for 2 or 3 days. One game even ended up in a war
Hunting • Bows and arrows • Fishermen used spears and fishing poles • Flint knives to skin animals
Tools/ Weapons • Clubs, bows, arrows, and shields • Stone adzes(hand axes for woodworking) and tomahawks • Wooden hoes were used for farming • Snow shoes and sleds were used to travel in the snow • Canoes – light and fast ~ made from elm bark • Dugout – heavy; made from log
The Battle of Lake George took place during the French and Indian War. • 200 Mohawk Indians fought beside Sir William Johnson of the British and 1,500 other British soldiers. • The Mohawk Indians and the British defeated the French during this battle. • Mohawk Indians fought against the United States in the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. • It was said that they ate their dead enemies after battle.