Critical Social Care Practice A Model Dr. Colm O’Doherty
What is Reflective Practice ? • Experiences a starting point for learning • Different from theory led practice, different from learning by imitating and doing • Bridges the gap between pure theory and directed practice • Schon -Creating knowledge through reflection poses an alternative to the ruling epistemology which privileges knowledge created through more “objective” research processes.
Models of Reflective Practice-Goodman’s Levels of Reflection (1984) • 1st Level Reflection to reach given objectives – criteria for reflection are limited to technocratic issues of efficiency, effectiveness and accountability • 2nd Level Reflection on the relationship between principles and practice – there is an assessment of the implications and consequences of actions and beliefs as well as the underlying rationale for practice • 3rd Level Reflection which besides the above incorporates ethical and political concerns – issues of justice and emancipation enter the deliberations over the value of professional goals and practice and the practitioner makes links between the setting of everyday practice and broader social structure and forces
Dreyfus Model of Learning (1986/1988) • Novice/Advanced Begininner-Act on the basis of context-independent elements and rules. Also use situational elements ,which they have learned to identify and interpret on the basis of their own experience from similar situations. • Competent Performers-are characterized by the involved choice of goals and plans as a basis for their actions. Goals and plans are used to structure and store masses of both context-dependent and context –independent information. • Proficient performers/experts-identify problems ,goals and plans intuitively from their own experientially based perspective. Intuitive choice is checked by analytical evaluation prior to action.Experts’ behaviour is intuitive ,holistic , and synchronic,understood in the way that a given situation releases a picture of problem ,goal,plan ,decision and action in one instant and with no division into phases.
Critical Practice Model-Practitioner Attributes (2007) • First –it entails an open-minded ,reflective and thoughtful approach to working with people-one in which careful attention is given to the context in which actions take place and the ways in which different contexts are apt to give rise to different assumptions and perceptions. • Second- it entails operating from a firm foundation of values and assumptions .These include a fundamental commitment to social justice , which leads to forms of practice that are both empowering and anti-oppressive .All these attributes and values are the subject of continuous review. • Third- practitioners develop and deploy a particular kind of “practice model” to make sense of their work.Sometimes they borrow their models from other people and at other times they make up their own model for themselves ,crafted out of reflections on and lessons from their own experience.
Understanding Critical Reflection • It is now taken for granted that reflection “in” and “on” practice , as well as a preparedness to adopt a reflexive stance towards their work, has a vital part to play in individual development and in organisational development . ( Butcher 2007:72)
Critical Awareness or Consciousness • Used to continuously review ideals, assumptions and dispositions ,in order that , in a reflexive way practitioners further develop their effectiveness. • Assumptions • Values • Principles of action • Desirable outcomes
Critical Theorising • A type of social theory that not only provides an understanding of present-day social relationships and institutions ,but also makes us aware of how such relationships and institutions can be other than they are.
Critical Action • Fashioning a convincing and concrete vision and agenda for change, in a way that makes real how things could be other than they are. This is best achieved through an incremental action-learning process , which involves addressing change issues across a broad range of policy and practice.
Critical Reflection • In this model reflective thought has both an intellectual and an emotional component. • Applying a reflexive approach to reflective practice by critically examining how both service users and professionals construct their worlds through interpretations and actions based on those interpretations .
A Curriculum for Critical social Care Practice –Methods and Processes • Exploring through discussion • Exploring through writing • Exploring through research • Paying attention to emotion • Building a climate for critical reflection
Outcomes Of Critical Reflection-Changes for Practitioners • Changes in construction of themselves- a broader and more reflexive and more empowered sense of themselves as professionals • Having a greater sense of mastery ,control and self-actualization • Greater sense of new choices created • Connection between the personal and social