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Supporting Engaged Pedagogy. Karl A. Smith Engineering Education – Purdue University Civil Engineering - University of Minnesota smith Normandale Community College November 30, 2010.

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supporting engaged pedagogy
Supporting Engaged Pedagogy

Karl A. Smith

Engineering Education – Purdue University

Civil Engineering - University of Minnesota

Normandale Community College

November 30, 2010

linking insights from how people learn to the process of planning undergraduate learning spaces

Linking Insights from How People Learn to the Process of Planning Undergraduate Learning Spaces

Jeanne L. Narum

Principal – PKAL Learning Spaces Collaboratory

Karl A. Smith

Engineering Education – Purdue University

Civil Engineering - University of Minnesota

Concordia University – St. Paul – October 22, 2010

how people learn hpl
How People Learn (HPL)

Bransford, Brown & Cocking. 1999. How people learn. National Academy Press.



“Throughout the whole enterprise, the core issue, in my view, is the mode of teaching and learning that is practiced. Learning ‘about’ things does not enable students to acquire the abilities and understanding they will need for the twenty-first century. We need new pedagogies of engagement that will turn out the kinds of resourceful, engaged workers and citizens that America now requires.”

Russ Edgerton (2001), Reflecting on higher education projects funded by the Pew Memorial Trust

student engagement research evidence
Student Engagement Research Evidence
  • Perhaps the strongest conclusion that can be made is the least surprising. Simply put, the greater the student’s involvement or engagement in academic work or in the academic experience of college, the greater his or her level of knowledge acquisition and general cognitive development …(Pascarella and Terenzini, 2005).
  • Active and collaborative instruction coupled with various means to encourage student engagement invariably lead to better student learning outcomes irrespective of academic discipline (Kuh et al., 2005, 2007).

See Smith,, 2005 and Fairweather, 2008, Linking Evidence and Promising Practices in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Undergraduate Education -

reflection and dialogue
Reflection and Dialogue
  • Individually reflect on Supporting Engaged Pedagogy. Write for about 1 minute
    • Key features?
    • Challenges?
  • Discuss with your neighbor for about 3 minutes
    • Select Story, Comment, Question, etc. that you would like to present to the whole group if you are randomly selected
national survey of student engagement nsse
National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE)
  • Level of academic challenge: Challenging intellectual and creative work is central to student learning and collegiate quality.
  • Active and collaborative learning: Students learn more when they are intensively involved in their education and are asked to think about and apply what they are learning in different settings.
  • Student-faculty interaction: Students learn firsthand how experts think about and solve practical problems by interacting with faculty members inside and outside the classroom.
  • Enriching educational experiences: Complementary learning opportunities inside and outside the classroom augment the academic program.
  • Supportive campus environment: Students perform better and are more satisfied at colleges that are committed to their success and cultivate positive working and social relations among different groups on campus.

seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education
Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education
  • Good practice in undergraduate education:
    • Encourages student-faculty contact
    • Encourages cooperation among students
    • Encourages active learning
    • Gives prompt feedback
    • Emphasizes time on task
    • Communicates high expectations
    • Respects diverse talents and ways of learning

Chickering & Gamson, June, 1987


Active and Cooperative Learning

January 2, 2009—Science, Vol. 323 –

Calls for evidence-based promising practices


How Clickers Work


Published: November 15, 2010 At Northwestern University and on hundreds of other campuses, professors are arming students with hand-held clickers that look like a TV remote cross-bred with a calculator. Here is how they work:

Each clicker has a unique frequency that is assigned to a particular student.

Using a numbered keypad, students signal their responses to multiple-choice questions, which are tabulated wirelessly by the professor’s computer.

Polling software then collates the data and gives the professor the ability to create various graphs and reports instantly as well as to store the data for grading and other purposes.

November 15, 2010 – NY Times


Problem-Based Cooperative Learning

January 13, 2009—New York Times –


challenges to implementing engaged pedagogy
Challenges to Implementing Engaged Pedagogy
  • Learning Spaces
  • Time
    • Class time
    • Semester
  • Faculty Resistance
    • Amount of material to be covered
    • “Students don’t know, they will be sharing ignorance”
  • Student Resistance
    • “You’re the expert, tell me”
  • Model of Teaching/Teacher Mental Image of Teaching
  • Teacher-Centered Paradigm

Teacher Mental Images About Teaching - Axelrod (1973)

Axelrod, J. The University Teacher as Artist. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1973.






Lee Shulman – MSU Med School – PBL Approach (late 60s – early 70s), President Emeritus of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of College Teaching

Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.

what do we do about these pathologies
What do we do about these pathologies?
  • Activity – Engage learners in meaningful and purposeful activities
  • Reflection – Provide opportunities
  • Collaboration – Design interaction
  • Passion – Connect with things learners care about

Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.


Comparison of Old and New Paradigm of Teaching (Johnson, Johnson & Smith, 1991)

Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Smith, K.A. Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom (1st ed.). Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company, 1991.


Robert Barr & John Tagg. From teaching to learning: A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change, 27(6), 1995.

Wm. Campbell & Karl Smith. New Paradigms for College Teaching. Interaction Books, 1997.

cooperative learning
Cooperative Learning
  • Theory – Social Interdependence – Lewin – Deutsch – Johnson & Johnson
  • Research – Randomized Design Field Experiments
  • Practice – Formal Teams/Professor’s Role





Cooperative Learning

•Positive Interdependence

•Individual and Group Accountability

•Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction

•Teamwork Skills

•Group Processing


Cooperative Learning is instruction that involves people working in teams to accomplish a common goal, under conditions that involve both positive interdependence (all members must cooperate to complete the task) and individual and group accountability (each member is accountable for the complete final outcome).

Key Concepts

•Positive Interdependence

•Individual and Group Accountability

•Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction

•Teamwork Skills

•Group Processing


Cooperative Learning Research Support

Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., & Smith, K.A. 1998. Cooperative learning returns to college: What evidence is there that it works? Change, 30 (4), 26-35.

• Over 300 Experimental Studies

• First study conducted in 1924

• High Generalizability

• Multiple Outcomes


1. Achievement and retention

2. Critical thinking and higher-level


3. Differentiated views of others

4. Accurate understanding of others' perspectives

5. Liking for classmates and teacher

6. Liking for subject areas

7. Teamwork skills

January 2005

March 2007


It could well be that faculty members of the twenty-first century college or university will find it necessary to set aside their roles as teachers and instead become designers of learning experiences, processes, and environments.

James Duderstadt, 1999 [Nuclear Engineering Professor; Dean, Provost and President of the University of Michigan]


Content-Assessment-Pedagogy (CAP) Design Process Flowchart

Integrated Course Design (Fink, 2003)

Initial Design Phase


1. Situational Factors


Backward Design

2. Learning Goals


3. Feedback and Assessment


4. Teaching/Learning Activities

5. Integration


C & A & P





active learning cooperation in the college classroom
Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom
  • Informal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Formal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Cooperative Base Groups

See Cooperative Learning

Handout (CL College-804.doc)



Creative Performance From Students

(& Faculty) Requires Maintaining

a Creative Tension Between

Challenge and Security

Pelz, Donald, and Andrews, Frank. 1966. Scientists in Organizations: Productive Climates for Research and Development. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.

Pelz, Donald. 1976. Environments for creative performance within universities. In Samuel Messick (Ed.), Individuality in learning, pp. 229-247. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Edmonson, A.C. 2008. The competitive advantage of learning. Harvard Business Review 86 (7/8): 60-67.

the greater the social support the greater the academic challenge
The Greater the Social Support, The Greater the Academic Challenge
  • Must Balance:
    • Challenge: An academic demand that may be beyond the student=s capacity to achieve
    • Social Support: Significant others helping students mobilize her or his resources to advance on the challenges
social support
Social Support
  • Two types of social support:
    • Academic Support: Classmates and faculty provide assistance and help students succeed academically.
    • Personal Support: Classmates and faculty care about and are personally committed to the well-being of each student.

Johnson, David W., Johnson, Roger T. and Smith, Karl A. 2006. Active learning: Cooperation in the college classroom, 3rd Ed. Edina, MN: Interaction Book.


Good teaching comes from the identity and integrity of the teacher.

Good teachers possess a capacity for connectedness.

Parker J. Palmer in The courage to teach: Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher=s life. Jossey-Bass, 1998.

session summary minute paper
Session Summary – Minute Paper
  • What was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned during this session?
  • What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as we end this session?
  • What was the “muddiest” point in this session?
  • Give an example or application
  • Explain in your own words . . .

Angelo, T.A. & Cross, K.P. 1993. Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.



Session Summary

  • (Minute Paper)
  • Reflect on the session:
  • 1. Most interesting, valuable, useful thing you learned.
  • 2. Things that helped you learn.
  • 3. Question, comments, suggestions.
  • Pace: Too slow 1 . . . . 5 Too fast
  • Relevance: Little 1 . . . 5 Lots
  • Instructional Format: Ugh 1 . . . 5 Ah