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STDs caused by Bacteria. Chlamydia, Gonorrhea Syphilis. Chlamydia. Most common Bacterial STD 2 million people currently infected 3 million more will acquire it this year Transmitted Through sexual activity During childbirth. Symptoms of Chlamydia.

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stds caused by bacteria

STDs caused by Bacteria

Chlamydia, Gonorrhea


  • Most common Bacterial STD
    • 2 million people currently infected
    • 3 million more will acquire it this year
  • Transmitted
    • Through sexual activity
    • During childbirth
symptoms of chlamydia
Symptoms of Chlamydia
  • 85% of women and 40% of men have no symptoms
  • Vaginal or urethral discharge
  • Burning with urination
  • Pelvic Pain (women)
  • Swelling and tenderness of the scrotum (men)
  • Genital ulcers
long term effects of chlamydia
Long-term effects of Chlamydia
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
    • Can damage the fallopian tubes and result in tubal scarring and infertility
      • Causes 25% of the infertility in women pursuing in vitro fertilization in the US
    • Symptoms
      • Pelvic and abdominal pain
      • Fever
      • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
      • Ectopic (tubal) pregnancy
  • Infants
    • Illness
    • Blindness
diagnosis and treatment
Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Diagnosis – lab test (genital fluids or urine)
  • Treated easily IF caught early
  • Treatment
    • Oral antibiotics
    • Newborn infants routinely receive antibiotic eye drops/ointment to prevent eye infection
symptoms of gonorrhea
Symptoms of Gonorrhea
  • Discharge from vagina or urethra
  • Pain during urination
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding (“spotting”) – women
  • Pain and swelling around the testicles – men
  • 25-80% of women and a smaller percentage of men have no symptoms
long term effects of gonorrhea
Long-term effects of Gonorrhea
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Pregnant women
    • Spontaneous abortion
    • Premature rupture of membranes
    • Preterm birth
    • May infect amniotic fluid
      • Blindness
      • Joint infection
      • Life-threatening blood infections
diagnosis and treatment1
Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Diagnosis – Body fluids will be examined and tested
  • Treatment
    • Oral or injectable antibiotics
    • After treatment, infected individuals should be re-examined and tested again
  • Number of cases is again on the rise
    • Between 1940’s and 2000 – number of cases fell from approximately 100,000 to less than 6,000
    • Today, beginning to rise again (36,000)
  • Called “The Great Imitator”
    • Many of the signs/symptoms resemble other diseases
  • Transmitted
    • Sexual activity
    • Contact with syphilitic sores
    • Passed to infants during childbirth
symptoms of syphilis
Symptoms of Syphilis
  • Primary Stage (10-90 days after infection)
    • Single sore (chancre)
      • Firm, round and painless
      • Occurs at spot where Syphilis entered body
      • Heals in 3-6 weeks if left untreated
  • Secondary Stage (2-8 weeks after infection)
    • Itch-less rash
    • Flu-like symptoms
      • Fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, patchy hair loss, headaches, weight loss, muscle aches and fatigue
symptoms cont
Symptoms (cont)
  • Latent stage (2 or more years after)
    • Signs disappear and think cured
    • Attacks heart, blood vessels, and CNS
  • Late stage (10 to 30 years after)
    • Heart, skin, brain, spinal cord affected
    • Cannot be cured at this stage
diagnosis and treatment2
Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Diagnosis – blood test
  • Treatment
    • Can be cured if caught early
    • Antibiotic
      • Will not repair or reverse the damage already caused by the disease
      • A single intramuscular injection of penicillin, an antibiotic, will cure a person who has had syphilis for less than a year.
std s caused by viruses

STD’s caused by Viruses

HPV, Genital herpes, Hepatitis, HIV


human papilloma virus hpv
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
  • More than 100 strains of HPV
    • 40 cause genital infections
  • 6.2 million Americans are infected with genital HPV each year
  • 50% of sexually active Americans are or have been infected
    • 20 million currently have the virus
    • Another 80 million have been infected some time in the past
  • In 90% of cases, the body’s immune system clears the HPV infection naturally within two years
  • By the age of 50, 80% of women will have acquired genital HPV
  • Transmission
    • Genital Skin-to-skin contact
    • Contact with infected body fluids
symptoms of hpv
Symptoms of HPV
  • Most patients have no symptoms
  • Genital and Anal Warts
    • 7% of infected people
long term effects of hpv
Long-term effects of HPV
  • Cervical Cancer – Women
  • Genital Cancers – Men
diagnosis and treatment3
Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Diagnosis
    • abnormalities detected on a Pap Smear – women
    • Most asymptomatic men do not know they are infected
  • Treatment
    • Topical medications applied to the wart
      • Decrease in size and disappear
    • Surgical removal (burning with a laser)
    • Freezing
  • Even with treatment, warts will often return
genital herpes
Genital Herpes
  • Most common sexually transmitted viral infection in US
    • 45 million people infected
    • 1 in 5 American age 12 or over have genital herpes
  • 2 types of herpes
    • HSV-1 and HSV-2
    • Most cases of genital herpes are HSV-2
  • Greatest risk factor is the total number sexual partners a person has had in their life
transmission of herpes
Transmission of Herpes
  • Skin to skin contact
    • Kissing with a sore
    • Touching a sore
    • Sexual activity
  • Exposure to infected body fluids
  • During childbirth
symptoms of herpes
Symptoms of Herpes
  • Initial infection
    • Fever, headache and muscle aches
    • Lesions appear in area of exposure
      • Blisters which break and become ulcers
      • About 8 days after exposure
      • Painful and often burn or itch
  • Other symptoms
    • Burning with urination, vaginal or urethral discharge, tender swollen lymph nodes
  • Recurrent outbreaks
    • Skin lesions
long term effects of herpes
Long-term effects of Herpes
  • NO CURE!!!
  • Can transmit to others even at time when not experiencing symptoms
  • 90% will experience at least one recurrence within 12 months of initial episode
  • Recurrences can occur for the remainder of the person’s life
  • Risk of spontaneous abortion and premature birth
diagnosis and treatment4
Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Diagnosis – Viral cultures
  • As many as 90% do not know they are infected
  • Treatment
    • Anti-viral medications
      • Reduces the duration and intensity of symptoms
being responsible about stds
Being Responsible About STDs
  • Seek medical help right away
  • Complete the full course of medications
  • Have follow up testing done
  • Avoid all sexual activity while being treated
  • Notify ALL sexual partners
safe sex
Safe Sex?

Safer… but not Safe Sex

birth control pills
Birth Control Pills
  • Female hormones that are taken orally every day to prevent ovulation or affect the lining of the uterus so that it cannot support and nourish a fertilized egg.
  • Does NOT protect from STDs or HIV.
think about it
Think about it…
  • Approximately 1 in every 5 people using condoms for pregnancy protection will get pregnant during the first year



hiv and aids
  • AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome – a disease in which the immunes system of the patient is weakened
    • 1982 – 1600 cases were reported…700 deaths resulted
    • 2000 – AIDS was the 5th leading cause of death among adults from 25-44 years
  • HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus – a virus that attacks the immune system
    • Causes AIDS
teens at risk
Teens at Risk
  • Teen have one of the fastest growing rates of HIV
hiv and the human body
HIV and the Human Body
  • As the number of viruses increase…the number of T cells decrease…the immune system is weakened
  • Opportunistic infections– infections that occur in individuals who do not have healthy immune systems
  • HIV is progressive
    • It destroys the cells of the immune system over many months or years
  • AIDS is the advanced stage of HIV
transmission of hiv
Transmission of HIV
  • HIV lives inside cells and body fluids
  • Transmittedthough…
    • Blood
    • Semen
    • Vaginal secretions
    • Breast milk
  • NOT transmitted by
    • Toilet seats
    • Telephones
    • Food
    • Being in the same area
    • Casual physical contact – shaking hands and hugging
    • Insect bites
    • Sweat
    • Sneezing
transmission of hiv1
Transmission of HIV
  • Sexual intercourse
    • Secretions containing HIV can enter a partner’s blood
    • Increases with number of sexual partners
    • Increases by having another STD that causes sores
      • Chlamydia, herpes, gonorrhea, syphilis
  • Sharing needles through IV drug use or
  • Un-sanitized tattooing or piercing needles
  • Mother to baby
    • Through the umbilical cord
    • During delivery
    • While nursing
staying safe
Staying safe
  • Knowledge is the best defense!
  • Abstinence from sexual activity or using drugs
    • Avoid pressure situations
    • Practice refusal skills
    • Choose relationships carefully
hiv testing
  • ELISA TEST-more general, less specific, and less expensive. A person must have 2 positive ELISA TEST to take the Confirmation Test that is more expensive.
  • Western Blot Test-this is the Confirmation Test a person is given when they have 2 positive ELISA TEST. This test is more expensive and more specific.