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Social Psychology of Work Dr. Craig Jackson Senior Lecturer in Health Psychology Faculty of Health UCE Birmingham. Scope Organisational behaviour in the workplace Group structures Group behaviour Leadership decision-making Organisational climate Affects Impacts on:

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slide1

Social Psychology of Work

Dr. Craig Jackson

Senior Lecturer in Health Psychology

Faculty of Health

UCE Birmingham

slide2

Scope

Organisational behaviour in the workplace

Group structures

Group behaviour

Leadership decision-making

Organisational climate

Affects Impacts on:

Job satisfaction Health

Mental well-beingAttendance

Stress Turnover

Bullying Productivity

Ageing

Change

slide3

Industrial Nation History

18th – 19th CENTURY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Decline in domestic industry

Large scale factory units

Maximum division of labour

Hierarchical structures

Poor conditions / limited worker power

20th CENTURY 1970s

Continuous technological change

Production line working

Growth of trades unions

Improved physical conditions

slide4

Industrial Nation History

LATTER 20th CENTURY

Decline of traditional industries

Growth of information technology

Growth of service industries

New patterns and styles of working

Changing composition of labour force

Decline in trades unions

21st CENTURY

Free trade

Producer responsibilities

Population movements

International communities

Supra national groups

slide5

Changes

21st CENTURY

Free trade

Producer responsibilities

Population movements

International communities

Supra national groups

WHAT KIND OF WORK?

WHAT PATTERN OF WORK?

WHAT STYLE OF WORKING?

WHAT KIND OF WORKFORCE?

WHAT KIND OF NEEDS?

slide6

What Kind of Work ?

NON-MANUAL

KNOWLEDGE-BASED

SERVICE WORK

slide7

What Pattern of Work?

24 HOUR SOCIETY

IRREGULAR HOURS

NEW TECHNOLOGY

CASUALISATION / SHORT-TERM CONTRACTS

OUTSOURCING

HOME WORKING

slide8

What Kind of WorkForce?

EDUCATED

NON-UNIONISED

HIGH PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN

MULTI-CULTURAL

AGEING

REQUIREMENT FOR JOB SATISFACTION

slide9

Traditions of Work Psychology

1. Relationship between the person and the job

(Motivation / Satisfaction)

2. Interactions between individuals and groups within organizations

slide10

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1954)

GROWTH

NEEDS

HOMOSTATIC

NEEDS

PEOPLE ALWAYS BEHAVE AS IF SELF- PRESERVATION IS A BASIC GOAL?

Self actualisation (personal growth and fulfilment)

Esteem (self and others)

Belonging (group membership, affection, companionship)

Security (safety, stability, continuity)

Bodily needs (food, drink, safety)

slide11

Alternative Theories of Motivation / Job Satisfaction

Task Characteristic theory:

People motivated by tasks which offer skill variety, value and autonomy

Goal-Setting theory:

People motivated by clear and demanding goals

Reinforcement theory:

People motivated by rewards and punishments

Equity theory:

People motivated by social comparisons made with others – input & outcome

Expectancy theory:

People motivated when there is a match between what people value (expect to get) and what their job provides

slide12

Systems Approach to Organisation

Liu & Tanaka 2002 – Japanese working men study

Input

(goods & materials)

Transformation Process

(mass production tech.)

Output

(finished goods)

Formal system

Social system

Tech. system

slide13

Interrelated Sub-Systems

FORMAL SYSTEMS

Explicitly designed to regulate actions of employees

e.g. hierarchy, working time etc.

TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS

Techniques used by employees

The way the work is done

SOCIAL SYSTEMS

The prevailing culture & context

e.g. values, norms, shared attitudes

slide14

Working Groups

Important to understand

Inevitable

Change individuals' behaviours

Can have powerful consequences

Understanding increases chance of desirable consequences

Why do people join groups?

Security

Mutual benefit (goal achievement)

Need for companionship

Self-esteem

Mutual interests (sharing)

slide15

Group Norms

Indicate expected behaviour

Concerned with observable behaviour

Express central values

Aid survival of group

Obvious to outsiders – statement of intent

Make group manageable

Accepted by majority of members

slide16

Why Shun Group Norms

Personal goals in conflict with those of group

No pride in group membership

Pre-occupation with achieving personal goals

Not accepted as group member

age

gender

ethnicity

education

slide18

Performance effects – methodological considerations

Task monotony

cognitive skills

Measures speed

accuracy

efficiency

Individual aspects motivation

perceived importance

age

ability

health

activity

Situation / context supervision

morale

distractions

slide19

12 hour shifts

Williamson et al. 1994 8hr vs. 12hr rotating psych health improved

Australia computer operators reduced tiredness

Duchon et al. 1994 8hr vs. 12hr rotating improved sleep

Canada miners improved performance

Chan & Gan 8hr vs. 12hr rotating no health differences

Singapore electronic workers some headaches

slide20

Vulnerable groups

Over 50’s

Morning types

Long sleepers

Personality types

Heavy domestic commitments

Multiple jobs

Some physical conditions

Psychiatric problems

Employee Selection

Pre-employment counselling

slide21

Management

Counselling

Education

Provide facilities

Manipulate schedules carefully

Increased control of work

Reduce any stress

Light quality

Drug policy

Health Surveillance

slide22

Standard Shiftwork Index (SSI) Barton et al. 1995

  • Questionnaires
    • Work Context + Shift System
    • Health
    • Well-being
    • Individual Differences
  • Normative Data
slide23

Training & Education

health effects

performance

safety

quality of life

information & awareness

coping methods education

lifestyle changes info

Survey current work schedule

Analyse data

Identify problem area(s)

Recommend schedule changes

Shiftworker education

Asses & review

slide24

Intervention strategies

  • Organisation
    • Slow / fast rotation (task considerations)
    • Start times
    • Rest breaks
    • Expert systems
  • Environmental Modification
    • Bright lights
    • Mood lights
    • Temp. compensation
    • Workload
    • Facilities
  • Individual Adjustment
    • Pharmacological help
    • Behavioural sleep management, diet, exercise, counselling

Evaluate process

Evaluate outcome

Health Surveillance

Do what?

How often?

slide25

Overtime working

Extension of normal workday

Extension beyond 8 hours (08:00 / 09:00 - 16:00 / 17:00)

Non-paid is still overtime

Increasing in UK

especially managerial & professional groups

1990 UK had twice as many more employees on >48 hrs than any other EU countries

More common in males

slide26

Overtime working

Percentage of European employees working <16 hrs per week, and > 48 hrs per week, 1990

If graph was males only?

slide27

Employers >40hrs per week as % of labour force, 1996

ILO

Czech Rep.

Turkey

S. Korea

Iceland

Swiss

Mexico

Hungary

USE

Canada

Japan

Ireland

UK

Australia

Portugal

Greece

Italy

Spain

Denmark

France

Germany

Norway

Sweden

Austria

Belgium

Finland

Netherlands

slide28

Potential effects

cardiovascular

mental health

immune system

Stress

gastrointestinal

musculoskeletal

social effects

performance impairment

Fatigue

safety problems

Exposure

over-exposure

slide29

Cardiovascular disorders and overtime

  • Increased Risk

> 60hrs

> 48hrs

Night school students

50 – 60 hrs

Overtime (females only)

No increased Risk

>10 hrs overtime / week

“Overtime” BP & Serum Chol.

Karoshi Range of CVIs 65%> if 60hrs / wk

slide30

1980

SITES WITH MASS PSYCHOGENIC ILLNESS (USA)

?

No. of symptoms

1985

KIBBUTZIM

(ISRAEL)

> 8 hrs/ day

Smoking

1987

MUSIC THERAPISTS (USA)

< 50

Burnout

X

1990

BUS DRIVERS (UK)

?

Psychiatric Status (Crown Crisp)

1991

COACH DRIVERS

(AUSTRALIA)

30-70

Stimulant

use/ Sleep disturbance

1992

FEMALE HOSPITAL STAFF (USA)

32-19

Exhaustion/ Insomnia

1994

FACTORY WORKERS (JAPAN)

?

Psychiatric State (GHQ)

1995

ACCOUNTANT (UK)

?

Psychiatric Status (GHQ)

1991 - 1995

MANAGERIAL STAFF (USA/JAPAN)

? 50 - 55

Stress (OSI)

1991 - 1995

CLERICAL STAFF

(USA/JAPAN)

?

Stress (OSI)

1996

ACADEMICS

50

Stress (SACL)

X

Mental Health

slide31

Health & Well-being:

Methodological Issues

Mostly Cross-sectional studies

Direction of any association

Lag

Healthy worker / Survivor Effects

Response Rates

Control Groups

Exposure Assessment

Outcome Measures

slide32

Performance Effects:

Optimal Productivity

Mather 1894

Engineering

Weekly hours of 48 - 53

Abbia 1901

Optical Instrument Makers

Daily hours of 8/9 max.

Vernon 1918

Munitions workers

Weekly hours of 50 - 60

Accounts for > degree of munitions errors in WWI ?

slide33

Performance Effects:

Accidents

General Data Analyses suggests:

Rise in accident rates after 9hrs work

Cognitive (simulations) studies suggests errors increase after 8 hrs work

HOWEVER

Shift change from 8 to 12 hrs

Safety record stays same

Attitudes ?

Safety culture increased ?

Schedule org ?

Nature of work ?

slide34

Existing Gaps in Research

Irregular Hours

Increased concomitant exposure to other hazards

Reproductive effects

Family / Social influences

Behavioural Effects

Effect Modifiers

Intervention procedures

slide35

Performance at work

Dilemmas

Working Hours

Shiftwork

Mental Distress

Dr. Craig Jackson

Senior Lecturer in Health Psychology

Faculty of Health & Community Care

University of Central England

slide36

Regulation of working hours

Linear Assumption

King Nimrod

Pieter Bruegel 1563

units

time

slide37

Regulation of working hours

  • Linear Assumption remained
  • 1800 – 1900
  • 12 hour days & 6 day weeks
  • Thomas Paine 1737 - 1809
  • Age of Reason
  • Rights of Man
  • Annie Besant 1847 – 1933
    • Reformist movement Fabian Sciety Secular Society
    • “Fruits of philosophy” “The Link” “White slavery in London”
  • 1889
  • Humanitarian concerns influenced change
  • 48 hour week + regular rest = increased productivity
slide38

Regulation of working hours

1900 – 1970

progressive reduction in working hours

traditional work patterns

1970 

working hours increase

shiftwork increases

irregular hours increase

24 hour processing

technology

unpaid extended hours

flexible working

annualised hours

slide39

European directive on working time

Organisation of work

Min. daily rest period of 11 consecutive hours per 24 hours

1 rest break where working day > 6 hours

Min. uninterrupted rest period of 35 hours per 7 day period

Max. of 48 work per week

Min. 4 weeks paid annual leave

slide40

European directive on working time

Night work

Mean 8 hours work in any 24 hour period

Free health assessment before assignment and at regular intervals

Transfer to day work when suffering health problems connected

with night work

Night work and shifts

Protection appropriate to the nature of the night work

Prevention and protection services on parity with day workers

Take account of principles adapting work to the workers

slide41

Derogations

Certain jobs

junior docs

Certain industries

press

media

utility provision

Circumstances

where rests are not practicable

Does not apply to: health checks

provision of health and safety facilities

Nearly 900 extra consultants will be needed by 2010

compensate for a reduction in doctors’ hours due to EWTD

BMJ 2002;325:855

slide42

Shiftwork

Any work regularly undertaken outside “normal” working hours

Normal working hours = 07:00 – 18:00

Nights

Early am

Evening

Fixed

Rotating

Eight hour

Twelve hour

Effects

Circadian disruption

Sleep loss

Fatigue

Social disruption

slide43

Circadian Rhythms

Body Temp

Pulse

Urinary excretion

Blood pressure

Hormonal changes

Mental Performance

Physical Performance

Physiologically determined

Socially modified & Externally cued

slide45

Adjustment to shiftworking

Aprrox. 7 days to adjust to shift

External cues hamper adjustment

Nightworking sometimes never achieves adjustment

Slow rotating shifts partial adjustment

continual adjustment

continual disrhythmia state

Rapid rotating shifts no adjustment

slide46

Adjustment to shiftworking

stress

strain

organisational effects

Phase-shifting of waking and sleeping hours

Impaired performance

Impaired health

Disturbed relationships

> Absenteeism

> Accidents

> Labour turnover

< Productivity

modifying factors

Individual characteristics

Job-related factors

Environment

Domestic

Colquhoun & Rutenfranz 1980

slide47

Cardiovascular problems associated with shiftwork

Increased Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD)

Knutsson et al. 1986, 1988

Increased risk of IHD and Myocardial Infarction (MI)

Akerstedt et al. 1986

Increased risk of Coronary V related disorders – Permanent Nightworkers

Teiger 1984

Some studies show NO increased risk

Bursey 1990

Chan et al. 1987, 1993

Kobayashi et al. 1992

slide48

Cardiovascular problems of shiftwork

Liu & Tanaka 2002 – Japanese working men study

260 cases 445 controls

Working Hours, Sleeping Hours and Acute MI

Working hours related to:

increased risk in year prior to AMI

increased risk in month prior to AMI

x2 increase in risk for overtime (>61 hours)

x2-3 increase in risk for <5 hours sleep

x2-3 increase for lack of sleep (2 or more days with <5 hours sleep)

lack of sleep & few days off in recent past show > odds than those in past

Overtime work and lack of sleep may be related to AMI

slide49

Gastrointestinal disorders and shiftwork

Indigestion (Chan et al. 1987)

(Poole et al. 1992)

Reflux

Peptic Ulceration (Waterhouse et al. 1992)

Related to:

irregular hours

circadian dysrhythmia

poor catering facilities

inequality in GP access

slide50

Gastrointestinal disorders and shiftwork

  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • 13-52% new referrals to GI (Walker et al. 1990)
  • Some occupations have > G.I than others (Cucino & Sonnenburg, 2001)
  • IBD < in manual workers and farmers IBD > in sedentary workers
  • Assoc. with occupation difficult to prove
  • shift workers seen as greatest risk of IBS
  • especially nightworkers
  • night workers present in GI more than day workers
  • Access / Availability reasons ?
  • genuine aspects ?
  • Research fails to answer: psychosocial aspects of workers ?
  • effects of shiftwork lifestyle ?
slide51

Mental health problems and shiftwork

Increased stress

Alcohol consumption

Neuroticism

Review by Cole et al. 1990 OM

slide52

Sources of performance impairment

Day sleepers

Endogenous factors Exogenous factors

Cortisol > Daylight

Temp. > Noise Societal bias

Night wakers

Endogenous factors Exogenous factors

Melatonin > Darkness

Temp. < Societal bias

slide53

Current evidence

Performance impairments more likely:

on nightshift vs. morning or evening

on advancing shifts vs. delaying shifts

on rapid rotating shifts vs. slower rotation

on irregular shifts vs. regular shifts

at changeover periods

in older shiftworkers

where work is stressful

Inconsistencies:

12 hour shifts

Sex

slide54

Additional Factors Effecting Performance

STABLE FACTORSSITUATIONAL FACTORS

Age Alcohol (recent use)

Education Caffeine (recent use)

Sex Nicotine (recent use)

Socio-economic Medication (recent use)

Language Paints, glues, pesticides (recent) Handedness Near visual acuity

Computer experience Restricted movement (injury)

Caffeine (habitual use) Cold / flu

Alcohol (habitual use) Stress

Nicotine (habitual use) Arousal / Fatigue

Medication (habitual use) Sleep

Paints, glues, pesticides (habitual use) Screen luminance

Diabetes Time of day

Epilepsy Time of year

Other CNS / PNS disease

Head injury (out >1 hr)

Alcohol / drug addiction

Physical activity

slide55

Further Reading

Cooper, C.L., and Sutherland, V.J: Job Stress, Mental Health and Accidents among Offshore Workers in Oil and Gas extraction Industries. Journal of Occupational Medicine (1987) 29.

Gann, M., Corpe, U., and Wilson, I. (1990) The Application of a Short Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire to Oil Industry Staff. Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine 40:

Glazner, L.K. Shift Work and its effects on fire fighters and nurses. Occupational Health & Safety, July 1992

Hanecke, K., Tiedemann, S., Nachreiner, F., and Grzech-Sukalo, H: Accident risk as a function of hour at work and time of day as determined from accident data and exposure models for the German working population. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health (1998) 24(3).

slide56

Further Reading

Harrington, J.M., Shiftwork and health: a critical review of the literature. London, The Stationary Office, 1978.

Harrington, JM. (2001) Health effects of shift work and extended hours of work.Occup Environ Med 58: 68-72.

Jackson,C.A. (2002) Working hours and shifts in the petrochemical and gas industries: a review. Croner’s Occupational Hygiene 34: 13-17.

Jackson,C.A., Spurgeon,A. and DeJong.G Mental Health of expatriate oil workers on extended twelve hour shifts in a desert-based oil field.Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE 61016.

Lees, R., and Laundry, B.R. Comparison of reported workplace morbidity in 8-hour and 12-hour shifts in one plant. Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine (1989) 39.

slide57

Further Reading

Lodden, T., The Effect on the Health and Safety of Older Offshore Personnel - Long Shifts and Working Night Shift. Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE 60996.

Parkes, K.R.: Sleep patterns, Shift work, and Individual Differences: A Comparison of Onshore and Offshore Control-Room Operators. Ergonomics (1994) 37(5).

Rosa, R.R: Performance, alertness, and sleep after 3.5 years of 12 hour shifts: a follow-up study. Work and Stress (1991) 5(2).

Spurgeon A, Harrington JM, Cooper CL. (1997) Health and safety problems associated with long working hours: a review of the current position.Occup Environ Med; 54:367-375.