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“Institutional Reforms For Integrating Environment in IWRM”. By: Dr. Mohamed Abdel Motaleb Head of Planning Sector, MWRI, Egypt. WHY DO WE NEED IWRM. Population increase and intensive activities Significant economic development Water scarcity ( quality and quantity)

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institutional reforms for integrating environment in iwrm

“Institutional Reforms For Integrating Environment in IWRM”


Dr. Mohamed Abdel Motaleb

Head of Planning Sector, MWRI, Egypt.

why do we need iwrm
  • Population increase and intensive activities
  • Significant economic development
  • Water scarcity (quality and quantity)
  • Water is withdrawn at a faster rate than it can be replenished .. Draw down of the GW table
  • Pollution and salt water intrusion
  • Limited human resources and Investment
  • Infrastructure rehabilitation and maintenance
  • Conflict of interest (governmental, civil society)
mdgs dublin rio principles wwf agenda 21
MDGs - Dublin-Rio principles – WWF – Agenda 21
  • To free a major portion of humanity from the shackles of extreme poverty, hunger, illiteracy and disease.
  • Establishing targets for achieving gender equality and the empowerment of women, environmental sustainability and a global partnership for development.
  • Fresh water is finite, vulnerable and that it is essential to sustain life, economic development and the environment
  • Sustainable water resources systems could be defined as those systems designed and managed to fully contribute to the objectives of society, now and in the future, while maintaining their ecological, environmental and hydrological veracity
  • The main objective for effective IWRM is to find the right balance between protecting the water resource itself while meeting social and ecological needs and supporting economic development

IWRM approach is considered as an integrated approach that considers economic, environmental, technical, social as well as cultural benefits issues, while ensuring the sustainability of water resources for future generations. IWRM creates a clearer link between and better understanding of human and ecosystem requirements and the relations between them.


An approach that support the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems

Ecosystem is not regarded as a ‘user’, but as the base from which the resource is derived and upon which development is planned.

A goal of IWRM should be to maintain, and whenever necessary, preserve ecosystem condition.

iwrm significant challenges
IWRM significant challenges
  • Complexity: the component parts, relations between them, information needed is huge;
  • Subjectivity: the information is expressed in indicators, it can be predisposed, linked to interests, which makes it necessary to judge things against each other;
  • Uncertainties: the differences between the amount of information required and the information actually available .. and the accuracy.
  • implementing the concepts of IWRM is delayed by the lack of policies and mechanisms for integrating socio-economic and environmental dimensions in IWRM in addition to not enough implementing capacities.
adaptive management
Adaptive Management
  • IWRM has to consider the flexibility and adaptive potential of a system. Flexibility is the potential of a system for changes.
  • Flexibility is the potential of a system to changes in external boundary conditions.
  • Flexibility on the theoretical level require learning. While developing and analyzing new policies, learning should be taken as the main objective.
institutional reform
Institutional Reform

IWRM relies on working institutions that are designed to accommodate changes and new information, the more rapidly shifting changes in the socioeconomic structure, technology and public interest regarding strategies for sustainable development.

Without this institutional foundation, water resources cannot be developed or managed; Few developing countries have adequate national water policy statements, national water plans, legislative and regulatory frameworks, or mechanisms for sectorial coordination. Building this institutional framework is the key to water management and integration.

institutional reform11
Institutional Reform
  • Institutional reform: correct policies, reliable political institutions, effective financing arrangements, self-governing and self-supporting local systems, etc.
  • Institutions are embedded in a centralized structure with fragmented approaches to water management and often local institutions lack the capacity.
  • Awareness and priority at political level of water issues is in many cases limited. Information and data to support better management of water is necessary.
what is environment
  • Water cycle (INCLUDING RAINFALL)
  • Rivers and lakes
  • Air pollution
  • Soil
  • Biotic
  • Climate System
  • Atmosphere, biosphere
  • Oceans, Glaciers, Seas
  • Forests
  • Ozone
  • plants, animals
  • Microorganisms
  • Chemicals
  • Human activities
  • Radiation
  • Environmentalsafety
  • Components/processes/functions of ecosystems affect human health
the environment
  • The environmental dimension of water is rapidly becoming a main component of water legislation.
  • As water becomes scarcer, relative to demand; as externalities increase, and as knowledge improves, the need to control the deterioration of water quality is converted to more detailed and demanding legislation.
  • Permissions, preventions, and fines are used to control the deterioration of water and related natural resources and environment.
worldwide environmental laws
Worldwide Environmental Laws
  • The 1992 Canadian Environmental Assessment Law aims to assure that environmental effects of projects are carefully considered
  • The 1969 United States National Environmental Protection Law requires that agencies include an Environmental Impact Statement for every action significantly affecting the quality of the environment
  • Decision making in Australia, as required by the Agreement on the Environment, must include economic and environmental considerations; considering that strong and improving economic conditions enhance the ability for environmental protection; applying the “preventing” principle; for equity; conserving biological and ecological conditions.
  • The Water Law of China requires that the development and utilization of water and the prevention of disaster be planned in an integrated approach, preservation measures or, on the other hand, compensation are required in cases of effects on existing developments
  • The German water legislation requires a previous plan approval procedure; considering protection from pollution
the arab environment report
The Arab Environment Report
  • 1. How are environmental conditions in the Arab world changing?
  • 2. What are the causes of environmental deterioration, and how is it linked to human activities and other factors?
  • 3. Why is environment a significant issue to the Arab world?
  • 4. What is being done about it? How is society responding to the issues through public and private actions?
  • 5. Are the measures taken to limit environmental degradation and deterioration enough?


institutional reform main pillars
Institutional Reform Main Pillars
  • Authority, Roles, and Responsibilities
  • Stakeholders relations
  • Integration: (Decentralization, Participation)
  • Legal Framework (procedure, fines, enforcement)
  • Awareness and Capacity Building
  • Structures (organizational, job description)
  • Data and Information Sharing
  • Measurements – Indicators – Monitoring
national policies
  • Protecting the environment includes several packages in which infrastructural, financial and institutional measures are integrated
    • Measures that prevent pollution
    • If pollution can not be prevented, treatment is the next option
    • The last option is to control the pollution (by protecting the people and important areas from pollution)
institutional reform18
  • Institutional Roles:changing institutional environment the role and tasks of the organizations at different levels should be clearly determined. This includes the effective co-ordination mechanisms between the different agencies and the development of financial systems for these agencies to carry out their task efficiently.
  • Enabling Environment: is formed by the national and regional policies and legislation that allow all stakeholders to play their roles
institutional reform problems
Institutional Reform Problems
  • Lack of coordination and integration
  • Not enough technical, institutional and legal capacity
  • Lack of data and information sharing
  • Limited budget and financial resources
  • Weak legal settings for IWRM implementation
  • Lack of law enforcement and instruments
institutional reform for water quality management
Institutional reform for water quality management
  • The management of pollution is generally fragmented. Ministries have responsibilities for certain aspects, but there is no overall co-ordination
  • Measures of prevention, treatment and impact modifying are not applied on the basis of a common agreed principles and strategies
  • Available resources are not allocated in an optimum way
  • Vertical institutional organization of the government
  • Weak Law Enforcement (political, social, …)
  • Conflict of interest and work plans
factors affect water quality in egypt
Factors Affect Water Quality in Egypt
  • The construction of the High Aswan Dam, reduction of the sediment downstream
  • Agricultural use and reuse of water in the Nile Valley and Delta, salt concentrations increase downstream
  • Agricultural activities using chemicals, toxic materials
  • Discharge of untreated domestic and industrial wastewater to surface water, distributed in the system by reuse pump stations
  • Discharge big volumes of drainage water in north lakes.
  • Increase population in the Nile Delta and Valley, pollution load increase
  • Increase in salinity in the Nile, canals, Drains and lakes
  • Water quality health problems
water quality
Water Quality
  • The water quality of the Nile is affected by agricultural drainage water, and industrial and municipal wastewater from all towns and villages of Upper Egypt and Delta that return to the Nile.
  • Most water quality parameters are available to evaluate the water quality in all monitoring points in the Nile system, GW wells, canals and drains
sources of water pollution
reasons for gaps of the law enforcement in egypt
Reasons for gaps of the law enforcement in Egypt
  • The weak institutional strength of MWRI in this field.
  • Lack of cooperation at all levels of society to actually bear the results of the implementation of the law. (reuse of drainage water is more important than prevention of pollution).
  • Rigidity in the law regarding the period for acquiescence, and the very high standards (cost of syncretizing is very high).
  • Limited financial resources allocated to implement the required measures (construction of treatment plants); 66% of the NWRP investment dedicated to Water Quality.
  • The law was not embedded in a clear strategy
  • Lack of short-term and long-term strategies and plans
water quality management institutional gaps
  • At least 25 agencies, in thirteen ministries, have legal responsibilities in water quality, mostly limited to monitoring.
  • There is a lack of cooperation and data sharing.
  • The lack of one complete updated water quality data base prevents finding main indicators, and developing policies, strategies and action plans
  • Sampling and analysis are different from ministry to ministry, resulting in conflict in information. Data from different sources are not matching
suitable institutional framework

For effective institutional reorganization, all the water quality management activities should be integrated under one entity.

These activities include samples, analyses, data, indicators and recommendations, decisions, implementation of measures and enforcement.

In MWRI responsibility for all these activities is distributed between big number of units, institutes and sectors.

water quality institutional reform
  • The Central agency for Water Quality Management should have a modern laboratory. The Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality, in the NWRC can be used.
  • Research activities should be in the NWRC.
  • The Central Agency for Water Quality Management should cover the tasks of data collection, policy and strategy development, and awareness and training.
  • Cooperation between all water quality projects in MWRI and with other ministries.
legal framework

High Committee for the National Water Resources Plan (2005)

Supreme Council for Protection of the Nile and Waterways (2010)

on going projects and programmes
On-going Projects and Programmes
  • IIIMP: Environmental Mainstreaming Component
  • IWRM (LIFE): Provide increased efficiency to water resources through improved economic returns to treated wastewater.
  • FWUOP: Environmental Programme to strengthen the role of WUOs in improving water quality
  • RCTWS: Water Quality Management Courses
  • NWRP: 26 (92) Measures for Water Quality
  • MWRI Strategy 2017-2030: WQ Chapters
  • WCU: Intensive Awareness Campaign on WQ
institutionalization of wqm within iwrmds

Director of IWRM District

IWRM Directorate

Planning and Monitoring


Planning and Monitoring






Water Distribution

and WQM Division

Water Distribution

and WQM Division





Institutionalization of WQM within IWRMDs
recent institutional measures
Recent Institutional Measures
  • Apply temporary customs and duties on rice export .. Rice prices decreased .. (farmers’ interest of growing rice greatly declined) .. Drainage reuse reduced due to reduction of agricultural demands, and WQ improved
  • Relocating heavily polluting industries away from the Nile and main canals; through law enforcement, incentives, and compliance agreements
  • Coordination between MWRI, MHUUD, MoTI, MoEA in stopping cultivation of crops on untreated wastewater
  • Assigning a main and secondary roles (including all concerned ministries) in approval and permissions
recent institutional measures36
Recent Institutional Measures
  • Reduce governmental subsidies for chemical fertilizers and pesticides .. (a reduction of application loads per fed. 30% was recorded)
  • Provide support and incentive for industrial factories to construct and operate treatment units
  • Starting of the program to build economic compact sewage treatment units in villages and transfer the O & M to local communities and CDAS

A system of function-based standards was recommended in NWRP: to assure good quality water and avoids too much investments for treatment.

However, Egyptian legislation for water quality stops its application.

Legal responsibilities for (actions on) water quality management are confusing, and quality standards are very rigid

  • Improved performance of the water resources sector will depend on institutional reform beside technological improvements and infrastructure
  • IWRM Obstacles contain uncertain boundaries and relationships; difficulties with objectives, alternatives and options; uncertainty; and stakeholder conflict.
  • Suitable water quality management requires rigid standards for some water uses (drinking water) and lower standards for irrigation and drainage
way forward
  • Transfer water quality management to the LOCAL LEVEL.
  • Train Staff on WQ actions by existing institutional arrangements (different cases, enforcement, stopping illegal activities, fines).
  • To have optimum effects, Actions should depend on sample analysis according the actual type of pollution and for different places and uses.
  • Governorate Environmental Directorates and Units will have to play a main role in enforcement.
  • Improved inter-ministerial cooperation in water quality management, joint actions for municipal and industrial sectors.
  • Increase awareness and support for pollution control measures such as higher wastewater treatment, solid waste, clean industrial return flows, and better understanding on social issues.
way forward40
  • Developing policy instruments for Ministry better control and effective actions, such as higher penalties for Law 48.
  • Awareness programs to make pressure on polluters, and involving WUOs in water quality monitoring (information transfer) and support solutions to local problems (including enforcement).
  • Strengthening the development of an organizational framework for inter-ministerial coordination, through the proposed National Water Council and Water and Environment units and committees.
  • Priority to municipal wastewater investment planning which improve the water quality (projects selection and planning)
  • Support and co-financing of enforcement of Law 48 on public and private industrial factories and construction of treatment units
  • Use the supreme council for protection of the Nile and waterways to agree on joint decisions between ministries on WQ improvement
key messages
Key Messages
  • Incorporating WQ within solid IR frameworks calls for better understanding of the process
  • Water Quality Management is Everybody’s Business and should be a cross-cutting theme
  • Good Governance is essential for public involvement and co-operative environment
  • EIA, EMP, EA should be basic components
  • Legislative strength will not function without public awareness and active participation
  • Trade-offs have to be innovatively addressed