Differentiating the Secondary Social Studies Classroom Carol Curtiss - Carol.firstname.lastname@example.org Tina Melcher - Tina.email@example.com Monday, October 17, 2005
Schedule • 8:30-11:30 • 11:30-1:00 Lunch • 1:00-3:30
How do you balance a Peacock Feather on your Index Finger? Hint: Keep Your Eye On The Goal
Individual Reflection • Why do you teach social studies? • What do you want students to have learned at the end of this year?
Goals for the Day Participants will • Explain what differentiation is • Feel more confident in their ability to implement at least one differentiation strategy in their classrooms • Take home useful classroom strategies and activities
Don’t be afraid to take the first step-- “All glory comes from daring to begin.” Eugene F. Ware
What Is Differentiation? It is a teacher’s response to learners’ needs
Definition To differentiate instruction is • To recognize students’ varying background knowledge, readiness, language, preferences in learning, interests, and to react responsively. • A process to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class • To maximize each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is, and assisting in the learning process. http://www.cast.org
General Principles of Differentiation • Clarity of Learning Goals • Respectful Tasks • Flexible Grouping • Ongoing Assessment & Adjustment • Teachers & students collaborating in Learning
Differentiation is … • Proactive • Qualitative • Rooted in Assessment • Student Centered • A Blending of instructional groupings • Organic
Differentiation is not… • Individualized instruction • Homogenous grouping • “Tailoring the same suit of clothes”
For Whom Should I Differentiate? Sticky Note Activity
Differentiate Students… • in their readinessto work with a particular idea or skill at a given time • Vary text by reading level • Vary scaffolding activities and assessment • Flexible Time • Learning Contracts * • Vary Graphic Organizers • Small Group Instruction • Homework Options
in learning profilesthat may be shaped by gender, culture, learning style, or intelligence preference. • Group Orientation • Cognitive Style • Learning Environment • Intelligence Preference
(2) in pursuits or topics that interestthem • Vary Topics • Model of Expression
Differentiate… Content Process Product Affect
Content • Use Broad-Based issues, Themes or Problems • Integrate Multiple Disciplines • Present Reinforcing Experiences • Allow for In-Depth Learning of a Self-Selected Topic History
Process • Develop Independent or Self-Directed Study Skills • Develop Higher-Level Thinking Skills • Focus on Open-Ended Tasks • Develop Research Skills and Methods • Integrate Basic Skills and Higher Level Thinking Skills into the Curriculum
Product • Encourage products that challenge existing ideas or “new” ideas • Encourage products that use new techniques, materials, and forms
Affect • Encourage the development of Self-Understanding • Evaluate student outcomes by using appropriate and specific criteria
When Do I Differentiate? Teacher’s Web Activity
How Do I Differentiate? • By Good Planning • Answering the Big “3” Questions
Nice to Know Important Essential Step 1 What do you want students to know and be able to do?
(G.5) Geography. The student understands how political, economic, and social processes shape cultural patterns and characteristics in various places and regions. The student is expected to: (B) analyze political, economic, social, and demographic data to determine the level of development and standard of living in nations.
G5.B Analyze data to determine • Level of development in nations • Political data • Economic data • Social data • Demographic data • Standard of living in nations • Political data • Economic data • Social data • Demographic data
Step 2 • How will I assess student knowledge? • What evidence will I accept?
Step 3 • How will I ensure students learn what they need? • What activities will I use to engage students in learning what they need?
Consider: • Who are the students in my class? • What are their needs? • What content, processes, and products will help the student learn what they need?
What will it look like in my class?
Traditional Student differences are acted upon when problematic Whole class instruction dominates Mastery of facts and skills are the focus Time is relatively inflexible Single interpretations of ideas and events Teacher solves problems Single form of assessment Differentiated Student differences are basis of planning Many instructional arrangements are used Ability to make sense of concepts/principles is the focus of learning Time is related to student need Students solve problems Multiple ways of assessment Classrooms
High Prep Low Prep
Exit CardsQuick and easy method of assessing student understanding on a particular idea, skill or topic • Teach the skill or concept and have students work and discuss it • Just before class ends, distribute index cards to all students. • Pose a question that probes student understanding of the topic
Have students write their name and a response to the questions on the index card • Sort cards into categories representing student understanding • Use cards to plan lessons aimed at helping each student
3-2-1 Exit Card Have students write • 3 most important ideas in the lesson • 2 questions they still have about the lesson • 1 way they can use what they learned
Learning ContractsAn agreement between a student and a teacher that sets parameters for responsible, independent work • Define learning goals • Develop an assessment of learner proficiency with those goals to determine learning needs • Create a “package” of tasks, activities and components likely to help student to achieve learning goals
Identify the actual tasks a student is expected to complete • List directions for how the student is expected to work during the contract time • Timeline for completing work • Instructions on how to get work approved when finished • Where to turn it in • Criteria for grading
CentersSmall group activities that are collaborative and task-based where students play an active role • The teacher is a mediator that plans structure of centers, roles, expectations and procedures, and assessment • Students are responsible for following procedures and completing all assignments
Center activities are • Writing assignments • Tasks • Textbook assignments • Computer projects • Research assignments • Internet lessons • Create effective grouping • Heterogeneous Groups • 3-6 Students per center • 4-6 Centers per classroom • Each Center should have a valid purpose – TEKS/TAKS driven • Each Center should take 10-15 minutes
Vocabulary • What kind of differentiated strategies or activities could you create your classroom to teach these vocabulary words? • TAKS Objective 1 – The student will demonstrate an understanding of issues and events in U.S. history.