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BICH411. Biochemistry I

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  1. BICH411. Biochemistry I M W 4:00 p.m. – 5:20 p.m. Dr. Shubo Han Website: Phone: 672-1303 Email: Office Hours: MWF 2:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. T 11:00am-1:00 pm

  2. Grading: Total: 100 points 90% - 100% A 80% - 89% B 70% - 79% C 60% - 69% D 0% - 59% F Three hour exams (10  3) 30 Homework and quizzes 30 Final examination 40 Total 100 Course Summary Please check the syllabus from the website of Blackboard.

  3. Chapter 1

  4. What is Biochemistry? Biochemistry is the application of chemistry to the study of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level.

  5. What is Biochemistry?

  6. What Do Biochemists Study?

  7. Plant

  8. Urchin

  9. Cat

  10. Three Domains of Life

  11. Eukarya: all macroscopic organisms, including human beings as well as many microscopic, unicellular organism such as yeast. The characteristic: a well-defined nucleus within each cell.

  12. Unicellular organisms lacking a nucleus are prokaryotes, including (1)Bacteria and (2) Archaea.

  13. The Mammalian Cell Cytoplasm Lipid bilayer

  14. The nucleus contains the cell’s DNA (genome) Nucleus

  15. Eukaryotic Cell Structure

  16. plant stem cell skeletal muscle cell Human erythrocytes (red blood cells) sperm cells

  17. Molecular Organization of Cells

  18. Types of molecules in a cell Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) Are constructed of four different kinds of monomeric units, the deoxyribonucleotides, G, A, T, C Ribonucleic acids (RNA) Are constructed of four different kinds of monomeric units, the ribonucleotides, G, A, U, C Proteins Are composed of twenty different kinds of monomeric units, the amino acids Lipids (Fat) Water insoluble molecule containing fatty acids. Used for membrane structure and energy storage Carbohydrates (sugar) Are constructed of monomeric units called monosaccharides. Also called polysaccharides.

  19. Molecular Components of an E. coli Cell

  20. Cellular Processes replication DNA transcription RNA translation Proteins Lipids Carbohydrates

  21. Conclusion: • (1) Organisms are remarkably uniform at the molecular level. • This uniformity reveals that all organisms on earth have arisen from a common ancestor.

  22. (2) All are subject to the same laws of physics and chemistry. • Biochemistry is an intellectually coherent and beautiful discipline because of the underlying unity of life.

  23. 1. DNA (1) Four simple compounds constructed DNA

  24. (2) DNA is a linear polymer of 4 kinds of units, each consisting of the same sugar-phosphate unit, but with 4 different bases attached: A, C, G, T.

  25. (3) Two strands combine by noncovalent base-pairing of A with T; G with C.

  26. (4) Facts • a. Most DNA molecules consisted of two strands. • b. This strands arranged in a double helix structure. • c. The double helix structure composed of two intertwined strands. • d. In the structure, the sugar-phosphate backbone lies on the outside and the bases on the inside. • e. Hydrogen bonds formed between the specific base pair is the major reason of two strands holding together. • f. The hydrogen bonds are weak enough to be reversibly broken in biochemical process and strong enough to help stabilize the double helix structure.

  27. (5) Two properties A and T forms two hydrogen bonds.

  28. G and C forms three hydrogen bonds.

  29. Adenine only binds with Thymine (A-T) • Guanine only binds with Cytosine (G-C) • Therefore, One strand determines the other strand. ( Each strand can be used as a template).

  30. Same shape and same size, thus fitting neatly within the double helix. For above reason DNA is used as a hereditary material.

  31. 2. RNA: RNA is an intermediate in the flow of genetic information RNA( ribonucleic Acid) Similar to DNA Linear polymer Sugar ribose, rather than deoxyribose Uracil instead of thymine

  32. RNA is templates for protein synthesis

  33. 3. Proteins: Protein is the primary functional molecules in the cells.

  34. 3. Proteins: Facts: Proteins: structural components of cell, or enzymes Proteins are linear polymers, just like DNA and RNA Proteins are more complicated.

  35. 3. Proteins: Protein is the primary functional molecules in the cells.

  36. 3. Proteins: • Extremely Important property: • A protein spontaneously folds into a well defined and elaborate three-dimensional structure. • This 3-D structure is dictated entirely by the sequence of amino acids along its chain.

  37. 3. Proteins: The self-folding nature of proteins constitutes the transition from the one-dimensional world of sequence information to the three-dimensional world of biological function. Three bases along a DNA chain encode a single amino acid. (genetic code).

  38. Questions: 1. DNA is made from _____ building blocks (Bases) . These blocks are___________________________.

  39. Questions: 1. DNA is made from __4___ building blocks (Bases) . These blocks are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.

  40. 2. The DNA backbone is made from repeating___________