The English Renaissance Notes – Mrs. Williams
What was the Renaissance? • Renaissance: • The revival of art and literature under the influence of classical models in the 14th–16th centuries. (Remember …the Crusades brought back a greater exposure to knowledge …both classic and new…this helps to start the Renaissance.) • The culture and style of art and architecture developed during this era. • A rebirth or revival
Major Characteristics of the Renaissance • A new technology, printing, made books widely available. The growth of KNOWLEDGE and EDUCATION takes off! WOOHOOOOO!!
Major Characteristics of the Renaissance • People expanded their worlds by reading classical Greek and Roman writers rather than only religious writings that promoted Christian doctrine.
Major Characteristics of the Renaissance • Humanism spread, focusing attention on human life here and now, as well as on eternal life. They looked for new answers to the questions “What is a human being?” and “What is a good life?”
Major Characteristics of the Renaissance • A growing merchant class, rich with wealth plundered from the Americas, began to challenge the power of the bishops and the pope. This will ultimately lead to religious reform…religious rebellion…and groups leaving ENGLAND to go to AMERICA to pursue freedom of religion.
Major Characteristics of the Renaissance • The Reformation, or the split from the Catholic church, begins to spread widely after a German monk, Martin Luther, preaches a new kind of Christianity, based not on what the pope said, but on a personal understanding of the Bible. • (This was possible because of the increased level of personal education inspired by the Renaissance!)
Major Characteristics of the Renaissance • The spread of scholarly Latin throughout Europe made possible the sharing of ideas. French, German, English, etc…all could understand Latin.
Important People of the Renaissance • Henry VII (7th): inherited a country poor from too much civil war and fighting – works hard to restore law and order and rebuilds the treasury.
Important People of the Renaissance • Henry VIII (8th) – known as a true “RENAISSANCE MAN” – someone who is knowledgeable in a wide variety of pursuits and topics – very educated in many fields – athletic – competent musician, etc… a Renaissance Man is a man (or woman) of broad talents and abilities – brought about by personal study
Important People of the Renaissance • Henry VIII: continued • Henry VIII was extremely spoiled, handsome, athletic…he got EVERYTHING he wanted…except a healthy SON. • In his quest to get a son…he married…a lot… he had six wives – a famous rhyme about his wives goes …Divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived. • The Showtime hit series THE TUDORS – followed the adventures of this notorious king and womanizer.
Important People of the Renaissance • Children of Henry VIII: • Daughter – Mary – becomes known as Bloody Mary due to her persecution of protestant christians • Daughter – Elizabeth I – becomes one of the greatest rulers of Great Britain – known as the Virgin Queen • Son – Edward VI (6th) – becomes KING at the age of 9 – but dies by the age of 15…most likely from tuburculosis • Wanted to keep the country protestant – so he named his cousin JANE GREY as queen – she is beheaded after 9 days – and Mary takes the throne – and attempts to return the nation to the catholic church – and earns the name Bloody Mary.
Important People of the Renaissance • Mary I – died after five year reign – Catholic supporter – killed hundreds of protestants – thus deserving the title Bloody Mary
Important People of the Renaissance • Eliabeth I – AMAZING QUEEN • Very Smart and highly educated • Ends religious turmoil through a policy of compromise • Known as the “Virgin Queen” – this was to allow her to remain unmarried and in sole control of her country – as well as to give the Catholics a figure to revere and compare to the “Virgin Mary” …the female head of their religion. • Died in 1603 leaving the throne to her cousin James – King of Scotland
Important People of the Renaissan • James VI (6th) of Scotland (Elizabeth’s Cousin…she had his mother – Mary, Queen of Scots, executed by the way…) becomes JAMES I of England – he is best known for commissioning an English version of the Bible known as The King James Version. • His reign ends the Tudor Dynasty and brings in The Stuarts • Strong supporter of the arts – fairly superstitious • Sonsor’sEnglands first American Colony – Jamestown, Virginia