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Democracy, Totalitarianism & World War II, 1919-1945. Chapters 26 & 27. Enforcing the Treaty of Versailles. An Uncertain Peace. France & the Treaty. France tried to enforce the treaty US & GB returned to isolationist policies Bolshevik Revolution knocked out Russia

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Democracy, Totalitarianism & World War II, 1919-1945

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france the treaty
France & the Treaty
  • France tried to enforce the treaty
    • US & GB returned to isolationist policies
    • Bolshevik Revolution knocked out Russia
  • Many in Europe looked to the L of N
    • The League lacked enforcement ability
  • France forms “Little Entente” w/Eastern Europe
  • 1922 Rapallo Pact
    • Germany agrees to supply manufactured goods to USSR & engage in joint military maneuvers
the advance of democracy
The Advance of Democracy
  • Short lived trend to democracy after WWI
    • Women got the vote in many countries
    • Labor unions got more power
    • Social legislation helped civilians
  • Eastern Europe sees new states with democratic governments
    • All had ethnic minority issues
    • Conservatives & Socialists opposed democracy
    • Land reforms failed to end underdevelopment
    • Only Czech. Seemed to work
weimar republic
Weimar Republic
  • Two major problems:
    • Faced numerous economic & political problems
    • Extremists on the left & right wanted to overthrow it
weimar politics
Weimar Politics
  • Founded by two political parties:
    • Social Democratic Party - left centered
      • No longer Marxist – wanted to advance a German welfare system
    • Catholic Center Party – right centered
  • Neither party wanted a Communist or right-wing takeover
attempted coups
Attempted Coups
  • 1919 Communist Spartacists tried a coup
    • They were captured & executed by the right-wing Freikorps
  • 1920 the Freikorps tried to overthrow the Weimar – Kapp Putsch
    • Prime Minister Ebert called for a general strike which prevented the rebels from being able to move
weimar constitution
Weimar Constitution
  • Representatives to the Reichstag were chosen by proportional representation
    • 10% of the vote = 10% of the seats
    • Allowed a diversity of views – made it difficult to establish a stable majority government
      • Easier for extremists to gain a voice
  • President of the republic could suspend parliamentary rule in emergencies
    • “suicide clause” allowed democratic rule to be undermined
most damaging
Most Damaging . . .
  • Weimar government was associated with the Treaty of Versailles
    • All saw it a diktat – a dictated peace
  • Demagogues perpetuated the myth that Germany had been on the brink of winning the war in 1918
    • Claimed “Jews, socialists, communists democrats” sold them out to establish a republic
    • Made the Weimar Republic the scapegoat for all problems
reparations and the ruhr
Reparations and the Ruhr
  • 1932 Germany fell behind on its reparations payments
    • France & Belgium invaded the Ruhr Valley
      • Wanted to extract payments in coal & steel
        • Germany encouraged workers to resist (passively)
        • Weimar had to pay the workers benefits & wages in more & more paper money
  • By Nov. 1923 the value of the mark was at an all time low
  • $1 = 4,000,000,000,000 Deutsche Marks
    • Overnight wealth became worthless
    • Confidence in the government plunged
  • Hitler attempted to overthrown the Bavarian government in the Beer Hall putsch (1923)
    • The coup failed – Hitler served 5 years
      • Hitler wrote Mein Kampf while in prison
dawes plan
Dawes Plan
  • Great Britain criticized France and Belgium for their invasion
  • The US intervened
    • Our former allies said they could not pay back our loans if Germany didn’t pay them
      • US gave loans to Germany
        • This was the Dawes Plan – helped for a while
      • US rescheduled loan repayments in exchange for French withdrawal from the Ruhr
the spirit of locarno
The Spirit of Locarno
  • 1924-1929 was a period of peace & hope
    • Diplomats turned to negotiation not war
  • Locarno Pact
    • Streseman – Germany & Briand – France
      • Germany accepted the loss of Alsace-Lorraine
      • Germany worked with Poland & Czech to make new borders
        • Germany entered the League of Nations in 1926
kellogg briand pact 1928
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
  • 65 nations signed the pact
    • Condemned all war
    • Had no power to enforce itself
      • Like the League of Nations
  • Japan invaded Manchuria (’31) & Italy invaded Ethiopia (’35) but there was no punishment
  • 1930 France began work on defensive forts along the German border
    • Maginot Line ~ symbol of false security
  • Strong Inflationary Pressures
    • Rationing & borrowing, devalued currencies and inflation
  • Disrupted Markets
    • India & others replaced Europe during WWI
  • Agricultural Depression
    • Glut on the grain market meant price drop
more causes
More Causes
  • Economic Nationalism
    • Many countries passed high tariffs to protect their industries
  • Reparations
    • World capital flowed from US to Germany; from Germany to France & Britain and back to US
  • Credit financing
    • Advent of payment plans allows deferred payments
    • Buying stock “on Margin” allowed borrowing up to 90% of the stock’s value – when it crashed . . . .
  • Investment & world trade plummeted
  • Unemployment reached all time highs
    • US & Germany were at 35% unemployment
  • Unstable credit caused bank failures
  • Currencies were devalued
    • Wrecked the gold backed system
      • First Britain then the US dropped the gold standard ’31
  • Trade reverted to bilateral agreements or barter
democratic responses
Democratic Responses
  • Usual economic methods failed to help
  • John Maynard Keynes offered an idea
    • Argued gov’t needed to “prime the pump”
      • Use deficit financing, cut taxes, increase gov’t spending on aid programs
      • This approach becomes the norm after 1945
democratic response gb
Democratic Response: GB
  • Great Britain was most dependent on trade
  • 1926 General Strike caused by conflicts with industry
    • Squashed by government
  • Labour Party replaced the Liberal Party and worked to increase the rights of workers
  • Britain gave autonomy to many areas under their control
  • They were in a weakened position
democratic response france
Democratic Response: France
  • Hit less hard than GB since they were less dependent on trade
  • President Poincaré stabilized the value of the franc – made French goods cheaper to buy
  • There was a rise in right-wing political power
  • Left-wing coalition Popular Front took power from 1936-38 & made some reforms
    • Lost power as tensions increased after the start of the Spanish Civil War
democratic response us
Democratic Response: US
  • FDR’s New Deal started in1933
    • Government $ was injected into society
  • These provided some relief, but unemployment spiked again from 1937-38
  • According to most historians, only WWII truly brought the US out of the Great Depression
democratic response scandinavia
Democratic Response: Scandinavia
  • Norway, Sweden and Demark combine socialism and democracy
  • Embraced Keynesian and creative approaches
    • Used producers’ cooperatives to regulate the prices of agricultural products and state ownership of key industries
totalitarianism grows
Totalitarianism Grows
  • Mass politics and intellectual trends after 1870 contributed to “irrational ideologies”
    • Anti-Semitism, anarchism’s glorification of violence and the rabid nationalism associated with imperialism
    • Darwinian evolution was used to justify the strong dominating the weak
    • Post WWI growth of radio & motion pictures were used to control people
totalitarianism v absolutism
Totalitarianism V. Absolutism
  • Absolute monarchs got power from traditional institutions
    • Extended power to areas vital to the state
      • Taxes, trade, religion
      • Geography & communication issues hindered centralization
  • Dictators used mass media to mobilize people to fanatical support
    • Every aspect of life must be subordinated to the party, movement and leader

Passive Obedience

Total Control of Society

  • Fascism was an interwar European phenomenon
    • It was not the liberalism of democracy or the revolutionary class-based Marxism
    • This “third way” was based in the 19th century’s irrational ideologies
      • Fueled by the instability of the 20th century
fascist ideology
Fascist Ideology
  • Militarism
    • War is the proving ground of national identity
  • Glorification of the state
    • State=all powerful – culmination of evolution
  • Fuhrer Principle
    • Voice of the people was most potent in 1 man
  • Antidemocracy
    • Democracy=weakness
  • Anticommunism
    • Condemned class warfare
  • One-Party Rule
    • Suppressed elections, free press, multiparty systems
the rise of italian fascism
The Rise of Italian Fascism
  • Italy was mad that it had been a “winner” but got no prize
    • Not allowed to reclaim lost lands
    • Had unemployment, inflation & high deficits
      • Lots of problems for the parliamentary democracy
  • Benito Mussolini was left-wing journalist
    • Became right-wing after WWI
    • Used the squadristi to intimidate opponents
      • Mussolini was seen as a champion of law & order
  • 1922 King Victor Emmanuel III was intimidated into naming BM premier
italy under mussolini
Italy Under Mussolini
  • Acerbo Law gave 2/3rds of parliaments seats to the party that had the most votes
    • 1924 Fascists gained control of the parliament
  • Giamoco Matteotti (Soc leader) was assassinated by fascists
    • Had exposed corruption & violence in the gov’t
    • Public demanded Mussolini’s resignation
      • Used the incident to secure power
  • By 1926 the press was censored, there was only 1 party & the secret police (OVRA) were everywhere
economy under il duce
Economy Under Il Duce
  • Pluralistic society becomes singular
  • Mussolini introduced the corporative state
    • Economy was run as 22 separate corporations
      • Each had representatives from business, fascist-organized labor unions & the state government
      • The state decided policy & production priorities
        • Private property & profit were allowed
  • Failed to address the problems of the GD
    • Created a program of public works
    • “Mussolini made the trains run on time”
      • Needed colonies to survive
society under il duce
Society Under Il Duce
  • Mussolini & RCC signed the Lateran Accords
    • Recognized Vatican City as separate from Italy
      • Papacy vows to stay out of Italian politics
  • Mussolini offers incentives to families with more children, awards for fertile moms & holidays to honor motherhood
    • The role of women was to have healthy kids
      • Healthy kids needed physical fitness
        • Dopolavoro was the state sponsored fitness movement
hitler s early years
Hitler’s Early Years
  • Hitler = Nazism in the minds of the world
  • Originally Austrian
    • Embraced anti-Semitism of Vienna’s mayor
  • Hated the “mongrel” Habsburg Empire
    • Ethnically diverse with aristocratic snobs
  • Moved to Bavaria to avoid Austrian draft
    • Enlisted in Bavarian army – served well
    • Message runner – victim of poison gas
hitler the rise of nazism
Hitler & the Rise of Nazism
  • Post-WWI he joined the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers’ Party)
    • His speaking ability made him leader
  • After the failure of the Beer Hall putsch he focused on “legality strategy”
    • Nazi message was simple: Weimar = rule by the worst – democrats, socialists, Jews – Germany needed strong national government based on race
hitler the rise of nazism1
Hitler & the Rise of Nazism
  • Hitler laid out the need for lebensraum (living space) in Mein Kampf
    • As a superior race, Germany should take the land to the east
  • Treaty of Versailles was Hitler’s constant focus for blame
  • Brown Shirts (Hitler’s S.A. – Stormtroopers) started street fights & generally got off
    • Targeted workers who only gave him 3% in ‘28
hitler the rise of nazism2
Hitler & the Rise of Nazism
  • Political turn around caused by
    • Great Depression
    • Switch in tactics to appeal to the middle class
  • Nazis used modern tactics to win votes
    • Hitler visited 50 cities in 15 days by plane
    • Portrayed as party of youth & dynamic leadership
    • Had 37% of the vote (230 seats) by 1932
      • Now the largest party
      • Some saw Hitler as the best hope against Communists
the nazi total state
The Nazi Total State
  • The Reichstag caught fire
    • Nazis blamed Communists
      • Banned the party & arrested the leaders
      • Still only gained 45% of the vote
  • Rammed the Enabling Act through
    • Hitler gets right to rule by decree for 5 years
      • Hitler=dictator
      • Passed the Civil Service Act in 1933 – al gov’t employees had to swear personal loyalty to AH
removing all obstacles
Removing all Obstacles
  • 1934 Hitler smoothes his path
    • All political parties EXCEPT the NSDAP are declared illegal
      • Federal governments (such as Bavaria & Saxony) were abolished – now there is 1 German gov’t
    • Leaders within the S.A. & all political opponents were executed
      • June 30, 1934 – Blood Purge
    • Hindenburg died 2 months later – AH = Prez
terror is the trick
Terror is the Trick
  • Secret police (Gestapo) arrested all perceived threats
    • Sent to concentration camps
  • SS (Schutzstaffel) replaced the SA
    • Eventually absorbed the Gestapo
    • Ran the death camps & promoted Aryan elite
  • All social & civic groups were run by Nazis
    • All for the state & its goals
    • See the film, “Triumph of the Will”
solving the economy
Solving the Economy?
  • Nazis used the “pump priming” concept
    • 1936 Hitler enacted the 4-Year Plan to promote autarky (self-sufficiency) in fuel & rubber – 2 strategic commodities
    • Promises of gov’t contracts won industry
    • Independent unions were replaced by Nazi controlled unions
      • Only union members could get jobs
    • Built the Autobahn
racial policy
Racial Policy
  • Boys joined Hitler Youth
  • Girls joined League of German Maidens
    • Promoted “church, kitchen & children”
  • Nuremburg Laws 1935
    • At first Jews were excluded from civil service & the army
    • Defined who was a Jew – striped Jews of citizenship – prohibited relationships with Aryans
  • Jews hoped the anti-Semitism would fade
  • Nov 1938 – it turns violent
    • Synagogues were burned
    • Businesses destroyed
    • Hundreds of Jews were killed or arrested
t 4 program
T-4 Program
  • “Unfit” were sterilized
  • Terminally ill, insane & physically deformed were euthanized
  • Approximately 200,000 were killed from 1939-1941
    • Protest by Catholic & Protestant religious groups slowed & eventually halted this
socialism in one country
Socialism in One Country
  • 1928-1938 was a period of intense modernization
  • Trotsky was expelled
  • NEP was ended
  • It became clear there was no impending world revolution of workers
  • Stalin took Trotsky’s ideas on strong central planning & implemented them
five year plans 1928
Five Year Plans 1928
  • The Goal:
    • Build a strong base of heavy industry
    • Aim for self-sufficiency
    • Create modern infrastructure
  • Gosplan (central planning agency) was in full control
    • Could not borrow $ - repudiated tsars debts
    • Relied on agricultural sector
forced collectivization
Forced Collectivization
  • NEP had created a class of wealthy land owning peasants – the kulaks
    • Kulaks were widely resented
  • Stalin forced all peasants – including kulaks – onto collective farms
    • Kulaks resisted by destroying crops & killing livestock
  • By 1932 collectives were the norm
    • Millions had died resisting
    • Millions died from famine – especially the Ukraine
  • USSR avoided the biggest problems of the Great Depression
  • Became world’s leading producer of tractors & locomotives
    • Overall US & Germany surpassed USSR in total industrial production
    • Often Soviet quality was poor & few consumer goods were produced
  • Massive growth is explained by its low start point
soviet totalitarianism
Soviet Totalitarianism
  • Independent political parties, labor unions & free expression were eliminated
  • Government controlled cultural life
    • Art, literature & film were for propaganda
      • Socialist realism – glorification of factories & workers
  • Cult of Personality
    • Huge posters of Stalin everywhere
great purges
Great Purges
  • All the old Bolsheviks were targeted
    • Got rid of anyone who had supported Trotsky
    • Got rid of any lingering capitalists
  • Great Terror 1934-1938
    • 4 million were charged with “crimes”
    • 8 million were executed
  • Basic standard of living improved
  • Women lost rights
    • Wanted to increase population – still had to work
mobilization of home front
Mobilization of Home Front
  • Germany did not mobilize effectively for wartime production
    • Hitler did not want to promote women in the workforce
      • Hesitated to ration consumer goods – saw what happened a the end of WWI
  • Germany relied on slave labor from conquered territories
  • 1942 Albert Speer was asked to centralize production of armaments
mobilization of home front1
Mobilization of Home Front
  • In USSR WWII = “The Great Patriotic War”
    • Billed as a fight for survival – not like WWI
    • More than 20 million Soviets died
      • Most of any nation
  • Moved entire factories inland when the Nazi had conquered the best farmlands
  • Stalin urged supercentralization around the production of war goods
  • Leningrad endured a 900 day siege
    • Survived on mice
  • Women served as combatants in the military
mobilization of home front2
Mobilization of Home Front
  • Great Britain also centralized for war
    • All adults assisted
    • Senior citizens in the Home Guard & women in the factories
  • People planted victory gardens and many items were rationed
    • Rationing continued until 1951
mobilization of home front3
Mobilization of Home Front
  • US became the “arsenal of democracy”
    • No nation produced more tanks, planes & ships
    • Never entered a complete wartime production
      • Used rationing much less extensively than in Europe
  • Japanese Americans on the West Coast were forced into internment camps to prevent them from “conspiring with the Japanese Empire”
collaboration resistance
Collaboration & Resistance
  • Europeans in occupied nations had stark choices:
    • Collaborate – help or passively accept the enemy
    • Resistance – engaged in acts of sabotage, hindered production, helped prisoners escape
      • More popular as the tide of war turned
  • Conservatives in many nations welcomed the order the Nazis brought with them
    • Often created puppet governments
  • In Norway Vadkun Quisling led the Nazi controlled government
    • To call someone a quisling is to call them a traitor
  • In France the Vichy government was Nazi
  • In the Balkans the Ustashe (nationalist, Catholic government of Croatia) led reprisals against the Orthodox Serbs
  • Charles de Gaulle led highly organized French Resistance fighters
  • General Tito in Yugoslavia was so successful against the Nazis they needed no help to liberate themselves
  • The Polish council, Zegota, saved hundreds of Polish Jews
  • The leaders of the White Rose in Germany were executed when they were caught distributing anti-Hitler pamphlets
  • The Final Solution was intended to “cleanse” society of undesirables
  • 1942 Reinhard Heydrich led the Wannsee Conference
    • Created death camps to eliminate Jews and others
    • Stepped up executions as Germany started losing
    • 6 million Jews & 5 million from the other groups were murdered