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Enzymes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Enzymes. Enzymes are organic catalysts A catalyst speeds up the rate of a reaction An enzyme will speed up a reaction by lower the activation energy of the reaction. This is the energy required for a chemical reaction to start .

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PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Enzymes' - leigh


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Presentation Transcript
slide2
Enzymes are organic catalysts
      • A catalyst speeds up the rate of a reaction
  • An enzyme will speed up a reaction by lower the activation energy of the reaction. This is the energy required for a chemical reaction to start
slide3
Many enzymes are proteins, but not all. The way you know a compound is an enzyme is by looking at it’s name. All enzymes end in –ase.
  • To speed up a reaction an enzyme will bind to a substrate. A substrate is the substance that is going to change or react
slide4
Enzymes bind to substrates in special locations called active sites. Each enzymes active site is unique. Only one type of substrate will fit in the enzymes active site, like a lock and key.
  • The enzyme and substrate together are called an enzyme-substrate complex and will remain together until the reaction is complete
slide5
In a reaction enzymes
    • Do not change
    • Are not used up
    • Can be reused
slide6
In a solution, the enzymes will catalyze substrates continuously until all substrates are reacted. However, an enzyme can only react with one substrate at a time. If a solution has more substrate in it than a certain amount of enzyme can react to quickly, it is called a saturated solution.
slide7
Coenzymes and cofactors are molecules that help the enzyme bind to the substrate. They are often vitamins
slide8
Factors affecting enzyme activity
      • pH
      • temperature
      • substrate concentration
        • Each enzyme works best at an optimum temperature and pH. Below or above the optimum range results in decreased enzyme activity
        • Decreased activity is often the result of an enzyme becoming denatured, which is when an enzyme falls apart
slide9
Inhibition: prevention of a reaction
  • Competitive inhibition: when a competitor molecule binds in the same place as a substrate would and blocks the substrate from binding
  • Non competitive inhibition: when a competitor molecule binds to the enzyme in a different place from where the substrate binds but causes a change in the enzyme so it can not bind to the substrate.
slide10
Without enzymes

Without

enzymes

With enzyme

with

enzymes

slide11
substrate

Active site

Enzyme-substrate

complex

enzyme

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