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Climate Change and Ozone Loss

Climate Change and Ozone Loss

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Climate Change and Ozone Loss

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  1. Climate Change and Ozone Loss G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13th Edition Chapter 18 Modified by Charlotte Kirkpatrick Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College

  2. Key Concepts • How does the Earth’s climate fluctuate • What factors affect climate • What are the possible effects of global warming • What can humans do about potential climate change • How are human activities affecting the ozone layer • What can humans do about changes in the ozone layer

  3. Past Climate Change • Past globaltemperatures • Recent trends in global temperatures Fig. 18-2 p. 447

  4. The Natural Greenhouse Effect • Greenhouse effect • Greenhouse gases(Refer to Table 18-1 p. 448) Fig. 6-13 p. 128

  5. Climate Change and Human Activities • Increased use of fossil fuels • Deforestation Refer to Table 18-2 p. 451 • Global warming • Melting icecaps and glaciers • Coral reef bleaching

  6. Projecting Future Changes in Earth’s Climate Fig. 18-11 p. 455 • Climate models(see Spotlight p. 457) • Apparent influence of human activities • Could be natural changes

  7. Factors Affecting Changes in Earth’s Average Temperature Fig. 18-13 p. 457 • Changes in solar output • Changes in Earth’s albedo • Moderating effect of oceans • Clouds and water vapor • Air pollution

  8. Some Possible Effects of a Warmer World Fig. 18-16 p. 461

  9. Solutions: Dealing with the Threat of Climate Change Fig. 18-20 p. 466 Options • Do nothing • Do more research • Act now to reduce risks • No-regrets strategy

  10. Removing CO2 From the Atmosphere Tree plantation Coal power plant Tanker delivers CO2 from plant to rig Oil rig CO2 is pumped down from rig for Deep ocean disposal Abandoned oil field CO2 is pumped down to reservoir through abandoned oil field Crop field Switchgrass field Spent oil reservoir is used for CO2 deposit Fig. 18-21 p. 467 = CO2 deposit = CO2 pumping

  11. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Rio Earth Summit (1992) Kyoto Treaty (1997) Some US CO2 Reductions Refer to Fig. 18-25 p. 472

  12. Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere Fig. 18-26 p. 473 Importance of Ozone • Terrestrial life • Reduce sunburn • Prevents tropospheric ozone

  13. Ozone Depleting Chemicals • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) • Halons • Methyl bromide • Carbon tetrachloride • Methyl chloroform • Hydrogen chloride • Sources of CFCs

  14. Seasonal Thinning at the Poles • Ozone thinning (hole) • Polar vortex Fig. 18-30 p. 475

  15. Reasons for Concern • Increased incidence and severity of sunburn • Increase in eye cataracts • Increased incidence of skin cancer Refer to Fig. 18-32 p. 476 • Immune system suppression • Increase in acid deposition • Lower crop yields and decline in productivity

  16. Solutions: Protecting the Ozone Layer Fig. 18-33 p. 479 • CFC substitutes (see Table 18-3 p. 477) • Technofixes • Montreal Protocol