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Human Geography By James Rubenstein. Chapter 10 Key Issue 1 Where Did Agriculture Originate?. Origins of Agriculture. The origins cannot be documented with certainty, because it began before recorded history.

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Human geography by james rubenstein
Human GeographyBy James Rubenstein

  • Chapter 10

  • Key Issue 1

  • Where Did Agriculture Originate?

S. Mathews


Origins of agriculture
Origins of Agriculture

  • The origins cannot be documented with certainty, because it began before recorded history.

  • Improvements in cultivating plants and domesticating animals evolved over thousands of years.

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Agriculture
Agriculture

  • The deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain.

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Crop

  • Any plant cultivated by people.

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Hunters and gatherers
Hunters and Gatherers

  • Before the invention of agriculture, humans obtained the food they needed through hunting, fishing, or gathering.

  • They lived in small groups.

  • Frequency and direction of movement depended on the migration of game and the seasonal growth of plants.

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Contemporary hunters and gatherers
Contemporary Hunters and Gatherers

  • Less than 0.005 percent of the world's population, still survive by hunting and gathering.

  • Contemporary hunting and gathering societies are isolated groups, but provide insight into human customs that prevailed in prehistoric times.

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Invention of agriculture
Invention of Agriculture

  • Over thousands of years, plant cultivation apparently evolved from a combination of accident and deliberate experiment.

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Vegetative planting
Vegetative Planting for non-economic reasons, such as sacrifices and other religious ceremonies, or household pets.

  • Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants.

  • The earliest form of plant cultivation.

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Seed agriculture
Seed Agriculture for non-economic reasons, such as sacrifices and other religious ceremonies, or household pets.

  • Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization.

  • Practiced by most farmers today.

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Location of agricultural hearths
Location of Agricultural Hearths for non-economic reasons, such as sacrifices and other religious ceremonies, or household pets.

  • Agriculture probably did not originate in one location, but began in multiple, independent hearths.

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Location of first vegetative planting
Location of First Vegetative Planting for non-economic reasons, such as sacrifices and other religious ceremonies, or household pets.

  • Probably originated in Southeast Asia.

  • Food primarily obtained by fishing, so people may have been more sedentary.

  • First domesticated plants probably included roots, and tree crops.

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Origin and diffusion of vegetative planting
Origin and Diffusion of Vegetative Planting Africa and northwestern South America.

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Location of first seed agriculture
Location of First Seed Agriculture Africa and northwestern South America.

  • Probably originated in western India, northern China, and Ethiopia.

  • Diffused quickly from India to Southwest Asia, where important early advances were made, including the domestication of wheat and barley.

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Diffusion of seed agriculture in the eastern hemisphere
Diffusion of Seed Agriculture in the Eastern Hemisphere domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

  • Plants and animals domesticated in Southwest Asia spread into Europe, North Africa, and India.

  • Millet diffused from northern China to South Asia and Southeast Asia.

  • Rice probably came from Southeast Asia.

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Diffusion of seed agriculture in the western hemisphere
Diffusion of Seed Agriculture in the Western Hemisphere domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

  • Corn and squash originated around southern Mexico.

  • Squash, beans, and cotton probably first domesticated in northern Peru.

  • Herd animals were unknown until introduced by Europeans.

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Seed hearth
Seed Hearth domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

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Classifying agricultural regions
Classifying Agricultural Regions domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

  • The most fundamental differences in agricultural practices are between those in LDCs and those in MDCs.

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Subsistence agriculture
Subsistence Agriculture domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

  • The production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer’s family.

  • Most predominant in LDCs.

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S. Mathews domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.


Commercial agriculture
Commercial Agriculture domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

  • The production of food primarily for sale off the farm.

  • Primarily found in MDCs.

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Five principal features of farming
Five Principal Features of Farming domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

  • Purpose

  • Percentage of farmers in the labor force

  • Use of machinery

  • Farm size

  • Relationship to other businesses

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Purpose of farming
Purpose of Farming domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

  • In LDCs most people produce food for their own consumption. Surplus may be sold, but may not even exist some years.

  • On commercial farming, farmers grow crops and raise animals primarily for sale.

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Percentage of farmers in the labor force
Percentage of Farmers in the Labor Force domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

  • Less than 5% of the workers are engaged directly in farming in MDCs.

  • 55% or more of population are engaged in agriculture in LDCs.

  • Only 2% of labor force are farmers in the United States and Canada.

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Of labor force in agriculture
% of Labor Force in Agriculture domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

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Use of machinery
Use of Machinery domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

  • Machinery replaced manual labor on farms in MDCs and allow a small number of farmers to feed many people.

  • Transportation improvements and electronic devices aid in the movement of crops and cattle to market more efficiently.

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Combines harvesting
Combines harvesting domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

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Tractors 1000 people
Tractors/1000 People domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

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Farm size
Farm Size domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

  • Commercial farms are large as a consequence of mechanization; tractors and other machinery allow a large area to be cultivated in a small amount of time.

  • Subsistence farms are small due to dependence on manual labor; a family can cultivate only a small area at a time.

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Prime agricultural land
Prime Agricultural Land domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

  • The most productive farmland.

  • In the U.S. and other MDCs, the most productive farmland is being replaced by suburban areas surrounding large urban centers.

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Relationship of farming to other businesses
Relationship of Farming to Other Businesses domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

  • Although farmers are less than 2% of the U.S. labor force, more than 20% of U.S. labor works in food processing, packaging, storing, distributing, and retailing.

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Agribusiness
Agribusiness domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

  • Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.

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Mapping agricultural regions
Mapping Agricultural Regions domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

  • Attempts have been made to outline the agriculture currently practiced based on climate, but

  • environmental determinism has discouraged placing too much emphasis climate, and

  • cultural preferences explain other differences.

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