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NOTE SU PLURILINGUISMO E REPERTORI LINGUISTICI DI IMMIGRATI NELL’ITALIA DELL’INIZIO DEL XXI SECOLO / SOME REMARKS ON IMMIGRANTS’ LINGUISTIC REPERTOIRES IN ITALY, AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY Marina CHINI ( University of Pavia ).
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NOTE SU PLURILINGUISMO E REPERTORI LINGUISTICI DI IMMIGRATI NELL’ITALIA DELL’INIZIO DEL XXI SECOLO/SOME REMARKS ON IMMIGRANTS’ LINGUISTIC REPERTOIRES IN ITALY, AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURYMarina CHINI (University of Pavia)
MERIDIUM International Conference, Perugia, 23-25 November 2011
24th November – II Session –
The impact of migration flows
1. Il contesto dell’immigrazione nell’Italia di oggi /
The context of immigration in contemporary Italy
2. Immigrazione e plurilinguismo in Italia: filoni di studio /
Immigration and multilingualism in Italy: some research trends
3. Lingue d’origine e comunità linguistiche immigrate /
The native languages and some immigrant linguistic communities
4. Repertori linguistici di alcuni gruppi immigrati /
The linguistic repertoires of some immigrant groups
5. Conclusioni, con alcuni spunti comparativi /
Conclusions, with some comparative remarks
January 2011, in Italy 4.570.317 immigrants, over a population of 60 million = 7.5%
+ 64 million - > now 214 million people
+ more than 15 million refugees.
In 2009 in EU 32.5 million people had a foreign citizenship, 6.5%.
Almost 15 million were naturalized.
Table A:Immigrants with residence permit (1980-2011)
(Source: Caritas/Migrantes based on ISTAT)
Year Origin (%) total n.
Europe Africa Asia America Oceania others
1980 53.2 10.0 14.0 21.0 1.4 0.4 298.749
1990 33.5 30.5 18.7 16.4 0.8 0.1 781.138
2000 40.7 28.0 19.2 11.8 0.2 0.0 1.388.153
2003 47.9 23.5 16.8 11.5 0.1 0.1 2.193.999
2008 53.6 22.4 15.8 8.1 0.1 0.1 3.891.295
2011 53.4 21.6 16.8 8.1 0.1 4.570.317
35% North West; 26.3%, North East; 25.2% Center; 13.5% South and Islands. More precisely 24% of them live in Lombardy, about 11-12% in Lazio, Veneto, Emilia Romagna; about 8-9% in Tuscany and Piedmont.
711.046 = 7.9%.
14% in 2001-02 -> 21.6% in 2010-2011.
Main principles: inclusive policy, promotion of the acquisition of L2 Italian and of intercultural dialogue, care to the uniqueness and relational character of every pupil, [weak] development of multilingualism, parental involvement
the It. Ministry of Education and University establishes that 30% is the maximum percentage of foreign pupils in a class, in order to avoid ghettoisation.
It also establishes that schools ‘can organize a first phase of language learning for foreign pupils [newly arrived in Italy], before they enter the class or in parallel to their setting-in phase, in order to facilitate their integration in the class’;
Furthermore schools ‘can organize enhancement courses where it is possible, resorting to teachers from the same school. Therefore it is convenient, in teacher training, to give special attention to methodologies and teaching measures suitable for promoting integration’
- MILIA, in the Nineties;
- integrated e-learning teacher training project Italiano L2: lingua di contatto, lingua di culture, 2003-2006
- still few resources at the financial and organizational level for promoting multilingualism and a real intercultural dialogue;
- often not enough competence at the pedagogical and linguistic level among teachers;
- non systematic intervention in this field;
- in principle no special teacher for Italian L2
a.Studies on immigrants’ acquisition of Italian as a second language (Banfi 1993, Giacalone Ramat 2003), also with a sociolinguistic perspective on pidginized learner varieties (Orletti 1988), on Italian ethnolects (Vietti 2005).
some developmental regularities at the morphological, syntactic level, then also at the lexical and discourse level
(cf. Giacalone Ramat 2003, Bernini et al. 2008).
-Vigoni-Project on Italian-German L2 (Dittmar/Giacalone Ramat 1999);
-The Learner varieties project, in different phases, coord. MPI of Nijmegen NL, with W. Klein, C. Perdue, then H. Hendriks, C. Dimroth
b.2001-2002 new interest in the entire immigrants’ linguistic repertoire:
Cf. Vedovelli & Villarini 2001.
On linguistic repertoires, language maintenance and language shift in some Northern Italy contexts, such as Turin, Pavia, Bergamo, Verona (Chini 2003, 2004; Massariello Merzagora 2004; Chini 2009c; Valentini 2005, 2009; Chini 2009a e 2011), the structure of immigrants’ repertoires (Guerini 2006; Berruto 2009), presence of immigrant languages in the Italian linguistic landscape (Bagna et al. 2004).
Possible rise of ethnolects and their internal variation in Italy [Vietti 2005].
The Pavia research Unit, coord. by M. Chini, with C. Andorno, M. Biazzi, G.M. Interlandi, investigated some sociolinguistic aspects of migration in the Province of Pavia and in Turin in 2002:
On the whole possibly 122 languages according to Vedovelli/Villarini (2001: 228-229).
[lingue "di sicuro radicamento sociale" in grado "di condizionare l’assetto idiomatico locale"; Bagna et al. 2003: 203].
English and French for Africans; Albanian; Romanian and Italian for Romanians;
Spanish for Latin-American immigrants;
Portuguese for immigrants from Brazil and Portuguese-speaking African countries;
Chinese and sometimes Italian for Chinese people;
Arabic, French, Italian for people from Arabic speaking countries;
English and Tagalog for media from the Philippines;
Polish in media for Polish people;
Urdu, Bengali, English, Punjabi, Sinhalese for immigrants from the Indian Region;
Russian, Ukrainian and Italian for Ukrainian [and Russian] people in Italy.
cf. Dossier Caritas 2008.
school, Italian friends > transactions > non Italian friends > family (brothers/sisters > father > mother > grand-parents
grand-parents > father/mother > non Italian friends > brothers/sisters > school, Italian friends, transactions(Chini 2004)
length of stay in Italy
school attendance in the host country
school attendance in the native country
social context of life
(Chini 2004).Relevant factors for language use and L1 maintenance
(Pakistani immigrant in Alto Adige – South Tyrol;
Banfi 1995: 146-147)
(8) dove vivo io parrano tutti il dialetto – dov|dove vado io a comprare un pane mi fa – rice- “quanto t’accattari?”, cioè quanto t’accattare è:: dialetto. e vabbene. piano piano::: mi sono imparato. già delle volte mi trovo difficoltà di parrare italiano perché già ! parro il dialetto meio di::: l’italiano vah!
(Palermo, Sicily; D’Agostino 2004: 207)
(9) c’era da scegliere far su famiglia + o andare sempre avanti + eh e niente con/ poi è stato + diciamo ‘sta ragazza qui “ma no state qui ma qui ma no” va ben abbiamo valudato che poi c’era il lavoro, c’era la casa e qui e là e quindi i conti li abbiam fatti io e lei + ?s’è ca fuma
[= che cos’è che facciamo?] (Lombardy, Chini 2003: 237)
- principal immigrants’ languages;
- initial language shift also in intra-ethnic domains.
Data to collect or topics to elaborate on:
NISU Project in Scandinavia (Boyd & Latomaa 1999):
Maintenance of minority language among immigrants’ children in the Nordic area:
Father or mother of the minority language [ML] > adult of ML > brothers and sisters [younger > older] > father or mother of the majority language (Boyd & Latomaa 1999: 309-311)
The factor ‘native country’:
Chinese immigrants and often Moroccan Arabic immigrants show high L1 maintenance (cf. in the Netherlands and in Australia: Extra & Verhoeven 1999: 19; Clyne 2003: 35). Data about Spanish speaking immigrants are less coherent in various areas.
Other possible explaining factors:
Thank you very much for your attention!
Mulţumes mult! Hvala!
Merci bien! Gracias! Danke sehr!
NOTE SU PLURILINGUISMO E REPERTORI LINGUISTICI DI IMMIGRATI NELL’ITALIA DELL’INIZIO DEL XXI SECOLO/SOME REMARKS ON IMMIGRANTS’ LINGUISTIC REPERTOIRES IN ITALY, AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY