Warm Up? What could be some reasons that would cause you to move to another country?
Key Terms House of Burgesses Mayflower Compact Magna Carta Bacon’s Rebellion 1st Great Awakening Democracy Legislative Assembly Self Government Limited Government Representative Government Constitution
13 Colonies 13 original colonies in the United States by 1700s. They are divided into 3 sections: New England Colonies Middle Colonies Southern Colonies Why? The 3 G’s: Glory, God and Gold
Jamestown • Other people came to make $ • Jamestown • Founded in 1607 • Flourished through the sale of Tobacco • House of Burgesses • Established in 1619 • First legislative assembly in the Colonies • Made up of 22 landowners who decided local issues • Practiced self government and democracy 150 years before the Revolution!
Pilgrims • Religious Beliefs: Pilgrims • Some people didn’t like the Church of England • They wanted it to be more pure • Religious Freedom • Founded the Plymouth Colony in 1620 • Mayflower Compact • Self Government • Direct Democracy • Settlers agreed to establish a government and abide by its laws
Seeds of Revolution: Magna Carta • The Magna Carta • Signed by King John of England in 1215 • Established the idea that no one was above the law • Limited the King’s Power (Limited Government) • Guaranteed rights of nobility…English Landowners • How will this effect the thinking of English landowners in the colonies hundreds of years later?
Seeds of Revolution: Parliament • Parliament • Established in 1265 as England’s Law making body • Similar to our Congress • The “Power of the Purse” • Laid the foundation for representative gov’t • Made laws for 13 colonies without our say • “No Taxation Without Representation”!
Seeds of Revolution: Fundamental Orders of Connecticut 1st written constitution in the Colonies in 1639 Provided for election of a governor and magistrates Had lawmaking, executive and judicial power Established individual rights of citizens & gov’t purpose Served as a blueprint for the U.S. Constitution
Bacon’s Rebellion-1676 • Western Virginia was being used as a human shield to protect those in the east from the Native Americans • Nathaniel Bacon burned Jamestown • Precursor of the American Revolution • 1st Rebellion in the Colonies
Seeds of Revolution: 1st Great Awakening • What was it? • Religious movement from 1730-1740’s • Gave colonists the idea that they could confront religious authority…and when churches aren’t living up to expectations the people could break off and form new ones • Colonists realized that religious power did not rest with the Church of England • Also came to realize that political power did not rest with the English Monarch
Seeds of Revolution: Albany Plan of Union First proposal to create a unified government for colonies Proposed by Ben Franklin in 1754 to help plan a defense for the French and Indian War Rejected by both colonial and English Governments
Seeds of Revolution: Iroquois Constitution Created sometime between 1390-1525 Designed to create peace between five Native American Nations Huge influence on Franklin and Madison when creating the Constitution
Reflection What were some reasons for people to travel to the Colonies? Why is the significance of Jamestown/Plymouth Colony? How did the Magna Carta affect the people who came to the colonies? What was Bacon’s Rebellion and why is it called a precursor to the American Revolution? What was the 1st Great Awakening and explain how it is considered a cause of the American Revolution? What is the significance of the Albany Plan of Union?
Warm Up/Review What were some reasons for people to travel to the Colonies? Why is the significance of Jamestown/Plymouth Colony? How did the Magna Carta affect the people who came to the colonies? What was Bacon’s Rebellion and why is it called a precursor to the American Revolution? What was the 1st Great Awakening and explain how it is considered a cause of the American Revolution? What is the significance of the Albany Plan of Union?
Key Terms Salutary Neglect Mercantilism French and Indian War Stamp Act Sons of Liberty Protest Boycott Propaganda
Salutary Neglect • Great Britain paid little attention to the colonies • Colonists became accustomed to self rule. • Huh?
French and Indian War1754-1763 • Great Britain and the colonists fight the French and Indians • Great Britain wins but is in major debt • Tax the colonists • Proclamation of 1763 • Can’t settle west of the Appalachian Mnts
Mercantilism • The belief that a country should sell more goods than it buys • Navigation Acts 1651 • Imported goods had to be purchased from England.
Stamp Act-1765 • Required colonists to attach expensive tax stamps to all newspapers and legal documents • “No taxation without representation.” • Sons of Liberty • Protest groups who opposed British taxes
Sons of Liberty Organized by John Adams in order to resist British Taxes through Protest and Demonstrations… sometimes through violence Also caused rebellion after the Town Shed Acts and Tea Act
Boston Massacre-1770 • A mob attacked a group of soldiers with rock filled snowballs • Soldiers fired on the crowd killing 5 • Although the soldiers were acquitted in court this event served to lure more people to the Patriot cause.
Boston Tea Party-1773 Political Protest against Tea Act by Sons of Liberty Dressed as Native Americans and dumped 342 chests of British tea into the Boston Harbor British respond with the Intolerable Acts
Intolerable Acts-1774 • B/c of Boston Tea Party • Quartering Act • Colonists were required to provide food/shelter for British soldiers. • Also, closed the port of Boston until the cost of tea was repaid • Tensions continue to increase • Also, paves the way for 4th Amendment
Committee of Correspondence Established Committees in many colonies to communicate between Patriot leaders Worked to convince more citizens to take an active role in resisting Britain
1st Continental Congress 1774 Sent document to King George III demanding that the rights of the colonists be restored Boycotted British goods Proposed Imperial Union 1st step towards secession to become an independent Republic
Shot Heard Round the World1775 • Britain sent troops to take away weapons • Shots were fired in Lexington • British proceeded to Concord • Forced British to retreat • School House Rock
2nd Continental Congress-1775 Convened in Philadelphia after Lexington and Concord Named George Washington Commander of the Continental Army and prepared for War Sent Olive Branch Petition to King George III Declaration of Independence July 1776
Common Sense-1776 Thomas Paine Argued it was simply “common sense” to stop following the “royal brute” Argued for Independence and the creation of a Democratic Republic
Declaration of Independence1776 • Thomas Jefferson • John Locke • Enlightenment philosopher • Believed in “Natural/Inalienable Rights” and the “Social Contract Theory”. • Explained why America should be a free nation
Reflection How did Salutary Neglect impact the political and economic relationship between Britain and the Colonies leading to the creation of a new nation? How did the French & Indian War, Mercantilism and Salutary Neglect help create the American Revolution? How is the Boston Massacre drawing by Paul Revere an example of propaganda? What role did the French and Indian War play in creating economic and political tension between Britain and the Colonies? How did the desire for a representative government lead to conflict between Britain and the Colonies? What were some examples of civil disobedience that lead to the Revolution and a change in government?
Warm Up/Review How did Salutary Neglect impact the political and economic relationship between Britain the Colonies leading to the creation of a new nation? What was Mercantilism and how did it contribute to the Revolution? What role did the French and Indian War play in creating economic and political tension between Britain and the Colonies? How did the desire for a representative government lead to conflict between Britain and the Colonies? What were some examples of civil disobedience that lead to the Revolution and a change in government? What was the purpose of the Declaration of Independence?
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.” What philosophers developed these ideas?
What influences have we discussed that lead the colonists into a state of Rebellion against Britain?
Views on Government • Thomas Hobbes • Believed that without gov’t, life would be chaos. • Need an absolute ruler to impose order and demand obedience. • Social contract • John Locke • The purpose of gov’t is to protect your natural rights. • If a gov’t fails to do so, citizens have a right to overthrow it.
Philosophers Advocate Reason • Voltaire • Fought for freedom of speech and religion. • “I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.” • Montesquieu • Believed in separation of powers to keep one group from gaining total control of the gov’t. • Rousseau • Wanted a direct democracy and since all people are equal, titles of nobility should be abolished and land should be equally distributed. • Beccaria • Argued that people have the right to a speedy trial and punishments should match the crime. Rule of Law.
Legacy of the Enlightenment • Progress • Reformers urged for greater social equality and a more democratic style of gov’t. • Secular Views • People began to question their religious beliefs and the teachings of the church. (1st Great Awakening) • Individualism • People used their own ability to reason in order to judge what was right or wrong.
Enlightened Despots • Frederick the Great (Prussia) • Granted religious freedom, reduced censorship, improved education, and abolished the use of torture. • “The first servant of the state.” • Did nothing to end the use of serfs. • Joseph II (Austria) • Introduced freedom of the press and religion and abolished serfdom. • Catherine the Great (Russia) • Recommended religious toleration, abolishing torture and capital punishment. • Favored an end to serfdom until a peasant revolt occurred.
Reflection Explain how the Enlightenment influenced the writing of the Declaration of Independence? Discuss the impact Enlightenment thinking had on religion and how did that eventually impact the Colonies?
Warm Up What do you think were some of the advantages and disadvantages faced by the Colonists entering the Revolutionary War?
Setting the stage • Enlightenment ideas would inspire American colonists to revolt against the British, and would also greatly inspire the US Constitution!
BRITAIN AND ITS COLONIES • AMERICANS BECAME ACCUSTOMED TO LARGE DEGREE OF INDEPENDENCE, BUT WERE STILL SUBJECTS TO THE KING • FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR STIRS UP RESENTMENT BETWEEN COLONISTS AND BRITISH
AMERICA WINS INDEPENDANCE • ENGLAND ANGERS COLONISTS BY EXPECTING THEM TO PAY THE COSTS OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR • COLONISTS PROTEST HARSH TAXES AND BEGIN TO MOBILIZE FOR WAR = “NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION! • COLONIAL LEADERS USE ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS TO JUSTIFY WAR AND WRITE THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.
Strengths & Weaknesses • British Strengths • Had the world’s strongest army & navy • Were supported by many Tories, Native Americans and Hessian mercenaries • British Weaknesses • Unpopular war • Unknown terrain
American Strengths • Knowledge of terrain • Extremely motivated • British overconfidence • French support • Time on their side • Washington’s leadership • American Weaknesses • Lacked supplies, experience and numbers
Major Turning Points Bunker Hill = Americans are defeated but gain confidence. Trenton = Washington crosses Delaware = huge morale boost. Saratoga= Turning point of the War = Huge victory, French believe we can win. Yorktown = Cornwallis overconfident, surrendered!