The Amazing Brain. Weighs about 3 pounds M ajor portions: Cerebrum Diencephalon Cerebellum Brainstem Made of about 100 billion neurons. The Amazing Brain. Cerebrum Largest portion Higher mental functions Diencephalon Processes sensory input Brain Stem
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The Amazing Brain Weighs about 3 pounds Major portions: Cerebrum Diencephalon Cerebellum Brainstem Made of about 100 billion neurons
The Amazing Brain Cerebrum Largest portion Higher mental functions Diencephalon Processes sensory input Brain Stem Coordinates and regulates visceral activities Cerebellum Coordinates muscle movements
Cerebrum Largest portion 2 cerebral hemispheres connected by CORPUS CALLOSUM Many convolutions to increase surface area
Cerebrum Divided into lobes Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Temporal lobe Occipital lobe
Cerebrum Performs higher brain functions Interpreting sensory info Coordinating muscle movement Intelligence & personality
Cerebrum Special areas control different functions Primary Motor Area (Frontal Lobe) Controls motor impulses Frontal Association Area (Frontal Lobe) Thinking, planning, emotions, behavior
Cerebrum C.Premotor Area (Frontal Lobe) Behavior planning Muscle movement for various actions D. Frontal Eye Field (Frontal Lobe) Coordinates voluntary eye movements
Cerebrum E. General Interpretive Area a.k.a. Wernicke’s Area (Temporal Lobe) Recognition of written and spoken language F. Broca’s area (Temporal Lobe) Coordinates muscles that create speech
Cerebrum G. Somatosensory area (Parietal Lobe) Limb position, touch sensations H. Visual Area (Occipital Lobe) Sight Identification of things we see
Hemisphere Dominance • Both cerebral hemispheres function in receiving and analyzing sensory input and sending motor impulses to the opposite side of the body. • Most people exhibit hemisphere dominance for the language-related activities of speech, writing, and reading.
Hemisphere Dominance • 90% of the population exhibits left hemisphere dominance • Some are right hemisphere dominant • Some have equal dominance in both hemispheres • The non-dominant hemisphere specializes in nonverbal functions and controls emotions and intuitive thinking.
Ventricles Interconnected cavities w/in cerebrum & brainstem Filled with CSF
Diencephalon Area between cerebral hemispheres Thalamus Hypothalamus Limbic System Glands
Diencephalon Thalamus = Switchboard Directs impulses from spinal cord to correct location in brain
Diencephalon Hypothalamus: Heart rate & blood pressure Body temp. Water/salt balance Hunger/weight Movements & secretions of stomach & intestines Hormone secretion Sleep & wakefulness
Diencephalon LIMBIC SYSTEM – emotions & expression AMYGDALA Recognizes facial expressions Assesses situation and responds Primitive decision-making center Emotions
Diencephalon LIMBIC SYSTEM HIPPOCAMPUS Memory Spatial navigation
Brainstem Connects cerebrum & spinal cord Parts: Pons- breathing rate Medulla Oblongata- Heart rate, BP, Sneezing, coughing, vomitting
Cerebellum coordinates skeletal muscle activity balance equilibrium maintains posture