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Regulators - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Regulators. Objectives. Describe the regulator most commonly used for recreational scuba. Compare a single hose regulator to a double hose regulator. Compare an open circuit system to a closed or Semi-Closed system. Contrast upstream valves with downstream valves.

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Presentation Transcript
  • Describe the regulator most commonly used for recreational scuba.
  • Compare a single hose regulator to a double hose regulator.
  • Compare an open circuit system to a closed or Semi-Closed system.
  • Contrast upstream valves with downstream valves.
  • Describe the operation of a pilot valve regulator.
  • Identify and describe the function of the:
    • First Stage
    • Primary Second Stage
    • Octopus/Extra Second Stage (ESS)
    • LPI hose
    • Console
  • Explain why it might seem harder to breath while laying on your back.
  • Give 4 reasons why the regulator might breathe “wet”.
  • Explain why a regulator might free flow.
  • List considerations for a pre-dive check of your regulator including the significance of a discolored 1st stage filter.
  • Describe proper care and maintenance of your regulator.
most common regulator
Most Common Regulator
  • Single Hose
  • Open Circuit
  • Demand
single hose
Single Hose
  • First Stage mounts on the cylinder valve
  • Second connected by a single hose
  • Air exhausts from the second stage
double hose
Double Hose
  • Both stages in a single housing mounted on the cylinder valve
  • Mouthpiece is just a mouthpiece
  • Air exhausts from the housing behind the diver
open vs closed circuit
Open vs. closed Circuit
  • Open circuit
    • Gas exhausts into the water
  • Rebreathers
    • Semi closed Circuit
      • Small volume of gas periodically escapes
    • Closed Circuit
      • No gas escapes
    • Typically used by technical divers
      • Require more
        • Training
        • Equipment
        • Preparation
valve design
Valve Design
  • Upstream valve
    • Forced closed by air pressure
    • Failure can shut off the flow of air.
  • Downstream valve
    • Air pressure acts to open the valve
    • Failure typically results in free flow
  • Pilot valve
    • Uses air pressure to both open and close the valve.
first stage
First Stage
  • Reduces Cylinder Pressure to a working pressure of approximately 125-140 psi.
piston first stage
Piston First Stage
  • Simple design
  • Few moving parts
  • Piston is exposed to the environment
    • Sealing kits are available
diaphragm first stage
Diaphragm First Stage
  • More complicated design
  • More moving parts
  • Critical components are sealed from the environment.
balanced vs unbalanced
Balanced vs. Unbalanced
  • Unbalanced First stage
    • Intermediate pressure will drop with cylinder pressure
    • Breathing resistance increases
  • Balanced First stage
    • Intermediate Pressure remains stable throughout change in cylinder pressure
    • Breathing resistance remains the same
  • Can be either Piston or Diaphragm
Yoke System
    • Typically used for lower pressure systems
    • May be easier to use
    • More common in USA
  • DIN System
    • Typically used in High pressure systems
    • O ring is contained/more secure
    • May not be as convenient in the USA
second stage
Second Stage
  • The second stage delivers air at ambient pressure and volume.
    • Primary second stage
      • Used by the diver during the dive
      • Custom Mouthpieces
2 nd stage features
2nd Stage Features
  • Balanced vs. Unbalanced
    • Balanced allows use of a lighter spring
    • Easier breathing resistance
  • Adjustable
    • Adjust breathing resistance
  • Air flow/Volume
    • Adjust air flow/volume based on need
trouble shooting
Trouble Shooting
  • Regulator breathes hard when supine
    • Pressure difference between 1st and 2nd stage
  • Regulator Leaks water
    • Torn mouthpiece
    • Torn Diaphragm
    • Inverted position
    • Exhaust valve problem
trouble shooting cont
Trouble Shooting cont.
  • Regulator Freeflows
    • Second stage lowered purge down
    • Sand in purge
    • Sand behind lever “ears”
    • Low pressure seat problem
      • Immediate
    • Intermediate Pressure problem
      • Intermittent
octopus extra second stage
Octopus/Extra Second Stage
  • Octopus/Extra Second Stage
    • Used in the event another diver runs out of air
    • offers slightly more breathing resistance than the primary.
      • reduces the likelihood of a free flow while diving.
LPI Hose
    • Used to add air directly from the cylinder to the BC
HP Console
    • Typically contains
      • SPG
      • Compass
      • Depth Gauge
    • May be an SPG only
care and maintenance
Care and Maintenance
  • Keep the interior of the first stage dry
    • Have the dust cap in place when the regulator is off the cylinder valve
  • Fresh water rinse after diving
    • Ideally rinse with flowing water while on the cylinder
    • Soak with the dust cap in place.
    • Make sure to rinse the quick release mechanism on the LPI
  • Annual service
purchase performance considerations
Purchase/Performance Considerations
  • Can the regulator meet demand at depth or high levels of exertion?
  • Can the regulator deliver high flow rates at low cylinder pressure?
  • Breathing adjustment
  • Flow/volume control
  • Exhaust resistance
  • Budget
  • Durability
pre dive check
Pre Dive check
  • Mouthpiece
    • Check for tears or holes
  • Hoses
    • Check for cracks, holes, soft spots, bubbles
    • Slide the stress relievers away from the 1st stage
  • Filter
    • Check for discoloration
      • Green = salt water in regulator
      • Rust = rust in tank
      • Oil = oil from the compressor
      • Black dust = carbon from the compressor filter
  • Inhalation check
    • Should not be able to inhale easily with your thumb over the filter opening in the 1st stage.