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Production Paper Summary. Vanita , Robin, Jeannette, & Chris. Social modeling for children with Asperger’s Direction taken from usability testing Tutorials to support first-time users Clarify button names. Background. Animation Practical considerations Functional considerations

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Production paper summary

Production Paper Summary

Vanita, Robin, Jeannette, & Chris



Design decisions

  • Animation

    • Practical considerations

    • Functional considerations

      • Attract attention (Lowe, 2004)

      • Engage learners (Lowe)

      • Sustain motivation (Lowe)

      • Reduction of extraneous cognitive load (Mayer et al., 2005)

Design Decisions

Design decisions1

  • Animation – Research is inconclusive

    • Ayres et al. (2005; 2007) identify why animation may not be effective:

      • Information is transitory

      • Animations are a series of successive elements

    • To offset these characteristics:

      • ‘tracing’ – leaving information on the screen

      • Employ a cuing technique to direct attention

      • Build in user-control (Ayres et al., 2005)

Design Decisions

Voice and text

  • Objective of using voice–overs/ sound and text:

    • To enhance user experience

    • To engage and catch the user’s attention

  • Rationale:

    • “In contrast to print and audio comparisons, which generally reveal no advantage for dual over single presentations, studies show that adding pictures to print or audio generally increases learning” (Nugent, 1992)

    • A dual modality presentation improves user comprehension and retention.

Voice and Text

Production paper summary

  • Flexibility is extremely important to system use since different users may require different degrees of support” (Sipior and Garrity, 1992)

  • A mix of audio and visual components improves attributes such as perception, attention, comprehension, and retention.

  • Research also revealed some Disadvantages

    • “a special consideration for video (and spoken audio) is that any narration may lead to difficulty for international users as well as for users with a hearing disability” (Nielsen, 1995)

  • Decision made:

    • a combination of voice and

    • use of simple text along with graphics and icons.



Text and Voice

Colour and graphics

  • Facilitate learning rather than distract

    • Figure familiarity and consistency

    • Clear, recognizable, transferable, simple shapes,

      symmetry or balance of positioning

    • Coordinated color palette and background


    • Text without button surround:

      simplified, less cluttered

Colour and Graphics

Segment length

  • Episodic nature of memory – Mayes & Roberts (2001) – visual information most salient

  • Optimal web video episode length – Nielsen (2005) - keep it short, less than one minute

  • Google Sketchup and Adobe tutorials – one to eight minute lengths

  • Czerwinski & Horvitz (2002) – let a previous task item fade from memory before introducing a new one

  • An issue of length or amount of information required to perform a task?

Segment Length

Assessment of learning

  • Usability testing visual information most salient

    • Parallel design: test multiple design prototypes

      • Dynamic animated – graphics, voice, text

      • Still images with text

    • Test efficacy of learning with Virti-Cue mock-up

      • 3-5 Users

      • Test with/without both designs

      • Open-ended questionnaire plus compare/contrast

      • Observation of specified task performances

    • Iterative design

      • Ease and efficiency of use

      • Few errors, pleasant to use

      • Achievement of learning goal

Assessment of Learning

Static graphic text
Static Graphic/Text visual information most salient


  • Trial 1 – Stop Action Animation visual information most salient – Digital Camera

  • Trial 2 – Animating ‘Jings’

  • Trial 3 … Word, Jing, PinPoint, Camtasia - final?


Animating jings
Animating ‘ visual information most salientJings’



Stop action animation
Stop Action Animation visual information most salient


Word jing pinpoint camtasia
Word, Jing, Pinpoint, visual information most salientCamtasia

Questions? visual information most salient


  • Ayres, P., visual information most salientKalyuga, S., Marcus, N., & Sweller, J. (2005). The conditions under which instructional animations may be effective. Paper presented at an International Workshop and Mini-conference, Open University of the Netherlands: Heerlen, The Netherlands. Retrieved from Ayres.doc

  • Ayres, P., & Paas, F. (2007). Making instructional animations more effective: A cognitive load approach. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 695-700. doi: 10.1002/acp.1343

  • Czerwinski, M., & Horvitz, E. (2002). An investigation of memory for daily computing events. In Xristine Faulkner, Janet Finlay, & Françoise Détienne (Eds.). People and computersXVI – memorable yet invisible:Proceedings of HCI 2002 (pp. 229-245). London, ENG: Springer-Verlag.

  • Grantastic Designs. URL:

  • Lowe, R.K. (2004). Animation and learning: Value for money? In R. Atkinson, C. McBeath, D. Jonas-Dwyer & R. Phillips (Eds), Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings of the 21st ASCILITE Conference (pp. 558-561). Perth, 5-8 December. Retrieved from

  • Malamed, C., eLearning, Information & Visual Designer. Retrieved from

  • Mayer, R., Hegarty, M., Mayer, S., & Campbell, J. (2005). When static media promote active learning: Annotated illustrations versus narrated animations in multimedia instruction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 11(4), 256-265. Retrieved from

  • Mayes, A. R., & Roberts, N. (2001). Theories of episodic memory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Bilogical Sciences, 356, 1395-1408. doi 10.1098/rstb.2001.0941

  • Nielsen, J. (1995). Guidelines for multimedia. Jakob Nielsen's alertbox for December 1995. Retrieved from

  • Nielsen, J. (2009). Parallel & Iterative Design. Jakob Nielsen’s alertbox for January 2011. Retrieved from

  • Nielsen, J. (2005). Talking-head video is boring online. Jakob Nielsen’s alertbox, December 5, 2005. Retrieved from

  • Nugent, G. (1982). Pictures audio and print: Symbolic representation and effect on learning. Educational Comm. Tech. J. 30, 3, 163-174.

  • Online Technology Learning Center, Tuscaloosa City Schools. Retrieved from

  • Reynolds, G., Associate Professor of Management, Kansai Gaidai University, Japan. Retrieved from

  • Sipior, J.C.& Garrity, E.J., (1992). Merging expert systems with multimedia technology. ACM SIGMUS Database, 23(1), 45-49. doi: 10.1145/134347.134359

  • Skaalid, B., College of Education, University of Saskatchewan. Retrieved from

  • UCAR and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US. Retrieved from

  • U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2006). Research-Based Web Design & Usability Guidelines. Retrieved from

  • Webster K., Online Course Developer/Consultant, University of Victoria. Retrieved from