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Production Paper Summary. Vanita , Robin, Jeannette, & Chris. Social modeling for children with Asperger’s Direction taken from usability testing Tutorials to support first-time users Clarify button names. Background. Animation Practical considerations Functional considerations

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Production paper summary

Production Paper Summary

Vanita, Robin, Jeannette, & Chris


Background

Background


Design decisions

  • Animation

    • Practical considerations

    • Functional considerations

      • Attract attention (Lowe, 2004)

      • Engage learners (Lowe)

      • Sustain motivation (Lowe)

      • Reduction of extraneous cognitive load (Mayer et al., 2005)

Design Decisions


Design decisions1

  • Animation – Research is inconclusive

    • Ayres et al. (2005; 2007) identify why animation may not be effective:

      • Information is transitory

      • Animations are a series of successive elements

    • To offset these characteristics:

      • ‘tracing’ – leaving information on the screen

      • Employ a cuing technique to direct attention

      • Build in user-control (Ayres et al., 2005)

Design Decisions


Voice and text

  • Objective of using voice–overs/ sound and text:

    • To enhance user experience

    • To engage and catch the user’s attention

  • Rationale:

    • “In contrast to print and audio comparisons, which generally reveal no advantage for dual over single presentations, studies show that adding pictures to print or audio generally increases learning” (Nugent, 1992)

    • A dual modality presentation improves user comprehension and retention.

Voice and Text


Production paper summary

  • Flexibility is extremely important to system use since different users may require different degrees of support” (Sipior and Garrity, 1992)

  • A mix of audio and visual components improves attributes such as perception, attention, comprehension, and retention.

  • Research also revealed some Disadvantages

    • “a special consideration for video (and spoken audio) is that any narration may lead to difficulty for international users as well as for users with a hearing disability” (Nielsen, 1995)

  • Decision made:

    • a combination of voice and

    • use of simple text along with graphics and icons.

Voice

Text

Text and Voice


Colour and graphics

  • Facilitate learning rather than distract

    • Figure familiarity and consistency

    • Clear, recognizable, transferable, simple shapes,

      symmetry or balance of positioning

    • Coordinated color palette and background

      contrast

    • Text without button surround:

      simplified, less cluttered

Colour and Graphics


Segment length

  • Episodic nature of memory – Mayes & Roberts (2001) – visual information most salient

  • Optimal web video episode length – Nielsen (2005) - keep it short, less than one minute

  • Google Sketchup and Adobe tutorials – one to eight minute lengths

  • Czerwinski & Horvitz (2002) – let a previous task item fade from memory before introducing a new one

  • An issue of length or amount of information required to perform a task?

Segment Length


Assessment of learning

  • Usability testing visual information most salient

    • Parallel design: test multiple design prototypes

      • Dynamic animated – graphics, voice, text

      • Still images with text

    • Test efficacy of learning with Virti-Cue mock-up

      • 3-5 Users

      • Test with/without both designs

      • Open-ended questionnaire plus compare/contrast

      • Observation of specified task performances

    • Iterative design

      • Ease and efficiency of use

      • Few errors, pleasant to use

      • Achievement of learning goal

Assessment of Learning


Static graphic text
Static Graphic/Text visual information most salient


Animations

  • Trial 1 – Stop Action Animation visual information most salient – Digital Camera

  • Trial 2 – Animating ‘Jings’

  • Trial 3 … Word, Jing, PinPoint, Camtasia - final?

Animations


Animating jings
Animating ‘ visual information most salientJings’

Back

Back


Stop action animation
Stop Action Animation visual information most salient

Back


Word jing pinpoint camtasia
Word, Jing, Pinpoint, visual information most salientCamtasia


Questions
Questions? visual information most salient


References

  • Ayres, P., visual information most salientKalyuga, S., Marcus, N., & Sweller, J. (2005). The conditions under which instructional animations may be effective. Paper presented at an International Workshop and Mini-conference, Open University of the Netherlands: Heerlen, The Netherlands. Retrieved from www.ou.nl/Docs/Expertise/OTEC/Nieuws/icleps%20conferentie/ Ayres.doc

  • Ayres, P., & Paas, F. (2007). Making instructional animations more effective: A cognitive load approach. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 695-700. doi: 10.1002/acp.1343

  • Czerwinski, M., & Horvitz, E. (2002). An investigation of memory for daily computing events. In Xristine Faulkner, Janet Finlay, & Françoise Détienne (Eds.). People and computersXVI – memorable yet invisible:Proceedings of HCI 2002 (pp. 229-245). London, ENG: Springer-Verlag.

  • Grantastic Designs. URL: http://www.grantasticdesigns.com/graphics.html

  • Lowe, R.K. (2004). Animation and learning: Value for money? In R. Atkinson, C. McBeath, D. Jonas-Dwyer & R. Phillips (Eds), Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings of the 21st ASCILITE Conference (pp. 558-561). Perth, 5-8 December. Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/perth04/procs/lowe-r.html

  • Malamed, C., eLearning, Information & Visual Designer. Retrieved from http://theelearningcoach.com/learning/visual-clarity-and-learning/

  • Mayer, R., Hegarty, M., Mayer, S., & Campbell, J. (2005). When static media promote active learning: Annotated illustrations versus narrated animations in multimedia instruction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 11(4), 256-265. Retrieved from http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/356/1413/1395.full.pdf+html

  • Mayes, A. R., & Roberts, N. (2001). Theories of episodic memory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Bilogical Sciences, 356, 1395-1408. doi 10.1098/rstb.2001.0941

  • Nielsen, J. (1995). Guidelines for multimedia. Jakob Nielsen's alertbox for December 1995. Retrieved from http://www.useit.com/alertbox/9512.html

  • Nielsen, J. (2009). Parallel & Iterative Design. Jakob Nielsen’s alertbox for January 2011. Retrieved from http://www.useit.com/alertbox/design-diversity-process.html

  • Nielsen, J. (2005). Talking-head video is boring online. Jakob Nielsen’s alertbox, December 5, 2005. Retrieved from http://www.useit.com/alertbox/video.html

  • Nugent, G. (1982). Pictures audio and print: Symbolic representation and effect on learning. Educational Comm. Tech. J. 30, 3, 163-174.

  • Online Technology Learning Center, Tuscaloosa City Schools. Retrieved from http://www.online.tusc.k12.al.us/tutorials/grdesign/grdesign.htm

  • Reynolds, G., Associate Professor of Management, Kansai Gaidai University, Japan. Retrieved from http://www.garrreynolds.com/Design/basics.html

  • Sipior, J.C.& Garrity, E.J., (1992). Merging expert systems with multimedia technology. ACM SIGMUS Database, 23(1), 45-49. doi: 10.1145/134347.134359

  • Skaalid, B., College of Education, University of Saskatchewan. Retrieved from http://www.usask.ca/education/coursework/skaalid/media/graphics.htm

  • UCAR and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US. Retrieved from http://www.comet.ucar.edu/index.htm

  • U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2006). Research-Based Web Design & Usability Guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.usability.gov/index.html

  • Webster K., Online Course Developer/Consultant, University of Victoria. Retrieved from http://distance.uvic.ca/teams/index.htm

References