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Ning-Ning Feng , Po Dong, Dawei Zheng , Shirong Liao, Hong Liang, Roshanak - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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4 January 2010 / Vol. 18, No. 1 / OPTICS EXPRESS 96 Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides. Ning-Ning Feng , Po Dong, Dawei Zheng , Shirong Liao, Hong Liang, Roshanak

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Ning ning feng po dong dawei zheng shirong liao hong liang roshanak

4 January 2010 / Vol. 18, No. 1 / OPTICS EXPRESS 96Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetectorwith high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides

Ning-NingFeng, Po Dong, DaweiZheng, ShirongLiao, Hong Liang, Roshanak

Shafiiha, DazengFeng, GuoliangLi, John E. Cunningham, Ashok V.

Krishnamoorthy, and Mehdi Asghari

KoturaInc., 2630 Corporate Place, Monterey Park, CA 91754, U.S.A.

Sun Microsystems Inc., 9515 Towne Centre Dr., San Diego, CA 92121, U.S.A.

2011. 05. 18.

Kim Yeo-myung



  • I. Introduction

  • II. Device structure and fabrication

  • III. Measurement result

  • IV. Conclusion



  • Waveguide based Photodetector

    • Evanescent and butt coupling schemes used (from silicon waveguides to germanium layers.)

  • Small core waveguides & Large core waveguides

    • Small waveguide based PD : Easy power transfer to the Ge films, larger fiber-coupling losses, tight fabrication tolerances.

    • Large waveguide based PD : tolerant to fabrication, superior performance in passive and active devices.

  • High-performance vertical p-i-n Gephotodetector integrated on 3um thick silicon-on-insulator waveguides.

    • High responsivity(including fiber to waveguide and waveguide propagating loss), 0.2uA low dark current, 8.3GHz BW.



Insulator = Intrinsic Ge(speed up)

Phase Matching Condition

(between top Ge waveguide

and bottom Si waveguide

to efficiently transfer light

from Si to Gewaveguides)


Key parameter


the Ge thickness can be made thicker to compensate for the Ge absorption coefficient dropping beyond 1570nm wavelength





Single mode waveguide

Device structure and fabrication
Device structure and fabrication

  • 1. The fabrication process starts from 3μm thick SOI wafers with buried oxide. → The single mode waveguidewas formed by etching 1.2μm thick Si with a width of 3μm.

  • 2. The wafer was shallow-implanted with boron in the silicon waveguide surface and then heavily implanted in contact areas to form p-typeohmic contacts. (Rapid-thermal-annealing(RTA) process)

  • 3. The Ge layer was selectively grown on top of the Si waveguide with a 100nm thick Ge buffer layer using low-temperature (400°C) growth followed by 1.1μm thick Ge growth at high-temperature (670°C).

  • 4. The film is intentionally grown thicker (1.1μm) than the target to compensate for the thickness reduction in later chemical-mechanical-polishing (CMP) steps.

  • 5. The wafers then underwent a post-growth-annealing step to reduce the threading dislocations in the Ge film.

  • 6. The top of Ge film was implanted with phosphorus to form n-typeohmiccontact area.

  • 7. the metal contacts for both p and n were formed by depositing and patterning a Ti/Al metal stack on top of the doped areas.


Measurement results
Measurement results

  • Dark current I-V charateristic at L=200um and W=3.5um .

  • The low dark current is an evidence of a high-quality Ge film growth.

RFAD Laboratory. YONSEI University

Measurement results1
Measurement results

Phase matching point

  • Excess loss : power leakage from the output side.

  • The phase matching points for both TE and TM polarization are shifted to longer wavelengths by using the thicker Gefilm.

  • External responsivity : photocurrent/fiber input power

  • TE : 0.5A/W at 1580nm, TM : 0.8A/W at 1580nm

Material absorption


RFAD Laboratory. YONSEI University

Measurement results2
Measurement results

High speed but low responsivity(0.4A/W)

  • Frequency response of the device (using Agilent vector network Analyzer)

  • The device speed is limited by the RC time constant → series resistance=33ohm and capacitance=200fF. (and cable 50ohm)

  • Initial analysis indicates that the transient-time-limited speed of the device can be as fast as 30GHz given the thickness of the Gefilm.

Higher bias reduces capacitance

RFAD Laboratory. YONSEI University

Measurement results3
Measurement results

  • Solution enabling both higher speed and higher responsivity

    • Use of partially butt-coupled structure. (Instead of growing Ge layer on top of Si waveguide, a small Gegrowing window (trench) can be opened by partially etching the Si waveguide and the required Ge thickness (for example 0.92μm) selectively grown into the opened trench.)

    • The higher coupling strength → shorter device length is possible

    • The 3dB bandwidth of such devices is expected to be greater than 30GHz with the resopnsivityapproaching 1A/W. (simulation)



  • Report a high-speed vertical p-i-n thin-film Gephoto-detector

    • 0.7A/W external responsivity including fiber-to-waveguide losses

    • Low dark current of around 0.2μA

    • 12GHz and 8.3GHz 3dB bandwidths for 100μm and 200μm long devices

    • covers the entire S-, C-, and L-bands of the optical communication

  • The responsivity spectrum can be tailored by choosing different Ge thickness designs

  • Integrated on large core SOI waveguide, the device shows very good robustness to tolerances in its fabrication process and has great potential for application in next generation data communication systems and inter-chip optical interconnects.