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Acetic Acid. By Hamad Shaabi Reyan Rutherford Shaun Lynn Andrew Pollock. Marketing. Marketing. Method. Ethylene via acetaldehyde Methanol by carbonylation Butane by liquid-phase oxidation Cativa Process. Ethylene via acetaldehyde. CO2 Removal. OFF Gas. Steam.

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acetic acid

Acetic Acid

By

HamadShaabi

Reyan Rutherford

Shaun Lynn

Andrew Pollock

method
Method
  • Ethylene via acetaldehyde
  • Methanol by carbonylation
  • Butane by liquid-phase oxidation
  • Cativa Process
slide7
CO2 Removal

OFF Gas

Steam

Reactor 106 °C 10 ATM

H2O

Flash tank

Acetic Acid scrubber

Acetaldehyde

Acetic Acid Product

BFW

Acetic Acid Column

Acetaldehyde Column

Acetic acid Extractor

Extraction System

Ethylene

Oxygen

Nitrogen

water

stm

stm

  • [PdCl4]²ˉ
  • C2H4 + H2O + ½O2 CH3CHO + H2O
  • CuCl2
  • CH3CHO + H2O CH3COOH + H2
methanol carbonylation
Methanol Carbonylation
  • Most used process for production of Acetic acid.
  • Developed by Henry Dreyfus at British Celanese, pilot plant opened in 1925.
  • Uses a metal catalyst, usually Rhodium.

CH3OH + CO  CH3COOH

methanol carbonylation1
Methanol Carbonylation
  • CH3OH + HI  CH3I + H2O
  • CH3I + CO + [Metal Catalyst]  CH3COI
  • CH3COI + H2O  CH3COOH + HI

CO + [Metal Catalyst]

H2O

HI

HI

H2O

CH3COOH

CH3OH

CH3I

CH3COI

Reaction carried out at a minimum of 200atm.

methanol carbonylation2
Methanol Carbonylation
  • Methanol and carbon monoxide are the raw materials.
  • Bi-products are separated using distillation.
cativa
Cativa
  • Developed in 1996 by BP.
  • Uses Iridium catalyst.
  • Requires Catalytic Promoter – Ruthenium
  • Increase in“active anionic” species Ir(CO2)I3Me]-
cativa process
Cativa Process
  • First step is no longer the rate determining step
  • Cativa Process 150x faster than Monosanto
  • Rate = [catalyst] x [CO]                       [I-]
  • Very high yield 95-98% at 99% purity
advantages of the cativa process
Advantages of the Cativa process
  • Iridium is much cheaper than rhodium
  • Less iridium is needed because it is so stable that all the catalyst is recycled in the plant
  • The reaction is faster and the quantities of by-products are much lower, reducing the purification costs. For example steam is used to heat the distillation columns and there is a 30% saving of steam over the Monsanto process
  • Some conversion of CO to CO2 still occurs but at a much lower rate
  • CO utilisation is increased from about 85% to over 94%
  • Overall the Cativa process releases about 30% less CO2 per tonne of product than does the rhodium process
slide22
Acetic Acid by Butane Oxidation
  • When butane is heated with air in the presence of a metal catalysts acetic acid is produced.
  • C4H10 + 2½ O2 → 2 CH3COOH + H2O
  • Suitanle metal catalysts are manganese, cobalt and chromium.
  • Conditions are run at a combination of temperature and pressure designed to be as hot as possible while keeping the butane in a liquid phase. Typical conditions are 150°C an 55 atm.
  • The reaction produces side products such as ethyl acetate, butanone and formic acid which are commercially valuable.
  • Reaction conditions can be altered to produce either of these as the major product if this is economically useful.
  • Before methanol carbonylation became commercialised in the 1980s, Butane oxidation was the major source of acetic acid
  • Now produces less than 10% of acetic acid supply annually.
slide24
References:
  • G. James, chemical process and design hand book, USA 2001
  • A. John & Encyclopedia of chemical technology
  • ullmann’s & encyclopedia of industrial chemistry
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