Carboxylic acids. 1 C: formic acid, methanoic acid 2 C’s: acetic acid, ethanoic acid 3 C’s: propionic acid, propanoic acid 4 C’s: butyric acid, butanoic acid. Aspirin : Should you take a daily dose?. (Prostaglandins F 2 a ).
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Prostaglandins are involved in the regulation of a variety of physiological
phenomena, including inflammation, blood clotting, and the induction of labor. Aspirin act by blocking the biosynthesis of prostaglandins in the cell.
making a carboxylic acid more acidic.
making a carboxylic acid less acidic.
NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-
RNH2, ArNH2 Primary, 1o Amines
R2NH, Ar2NH Secondary, 2oAmines
R3N, Ar3N Tertiary, 3o Amines
NaNOสารประกอบเอมีนที่มีฤทธิ์เป็นยา2 inhibits the growth of Clostridium botulinum.
Quoteสารประกอบเอมีนที่มีฤทธิ์เป็นยา of The Day
Think like a wise man
but express yourself like
an ordinary one.
is the study of the three-dimensional structure of molecules.
Isomers : Different compounds that have the same
Stereoisomers : Isomers that have the same bonding sequence
but differ in the orientation of their atoms in space.
Mirror morning sickness and used extensively in Europe and Canada despite strong warning that it not be used by pregnant women.
คู่ morning sickness and used extensively in Europe and Canada despite strong warning that it not be used by pregnant women. enantiomers
Specific rotation melting points, they rotate the plane of polarized light in opposite directions. , [a] = amount (degrees) that a substance rotates plane polarized light expressed in a standard form.
Carvone from caraway: [ melting points, they rotate the plane of polarized light in opposite directions. α]D = +62.5º
Carvone from spearmint: [α]D = –62.5º
Lactic acid from muscle tissue: [α]D = +2.5º
Lactic acid from sour milk: [α]D = –2.5º
How can one identify enantiomerism? melting points, they rotate the plane of polarized light in opposite directions.
All objects may be classified with respect to chirality (from the Greek cheir = hand):
Chiral = Objects that are different from theirs mirror image;
i.e. golf clubs, scissors; enantiomers are chiral.
Achiral = Objects that are identical with theirs mirror image;
i.e. a pencil, a T-shirt.
Chiral molecule : (R)-lactic acid melting points, they rotate the plane of polarized light in opposite directions.
Achiral molecule : water
Chiral molecules have melting points, they rotate the plane of polarized light in opposite directions. chiral center (or stereo or stereogenic center):
an atom attached to 4 different atoms or groups.
Designating the Configuration of Stereogenic Centers melting points, they rotate the plane of polarized light in opposite directions.
The CIP system of nomenclature.
(R. S. Cahn, C. K. Ingold and V. Prelog)
The assignment of the prefixes depends on the melting points, they rotate the plane of polarized light in opposite directions.
application of two rules:
The Sequence Rule
The Viewing Rule
The Sequence Rule melting points, they rotate the plane of polarized light in opposite directions.
substituents, they are treated as an equivalent set of single-
bonded atoms. i.e. C2H5– < CH2=CH– < HC≡C–
The Viewing Rule melting points, they rotate the plane of polarized light in opposite directions.
Assign Priorities melting points, they rotate the plane of polarized light in opposite directions.
Twist the lowest
priority to the
Priorities melting points, they rotate the plane of polarized light in opposite directions.
If you have troubles looking at the stereocenter, try Fischer Projections.
1) Rotation on page 180˚ is allowed for Fischer projection.
2) One group can be held steady while the other three rotate in either
a clockwise or a clockwise direction.
Assigning projection.R, S configurations to Fischer projections.
of lowest (4th) priority at the top or bottom of the Fischer
projection if it is necessary.
1 to 2 to 3, and assign R (clockwise) or
Compounds Having Two or More Stereogenic Centers projection.
(+)-Pseudoephedrine and (-)-Pseudoephedrine are projection.diastereomers of (+)-Ephedrine.
melting points, boiling points, solubities in solvent, etc.
Enantiomers: projection. non-superimposable (different) mirror images; most of chemical and physical properties are identical.
Diastereomers: are stereoisomers that are not mirror images (all stereoisomers except enantiomers) and have different chemical and physical properties.
Relationships Between Stereoisomers projection.
Cahn-Ingold-Prelog R/S notation = Specifies absolute configuration of a chiral center;
there is no correspondence between R and + or S and –
Meso Isomer: projection.
an achiral molecule with 2 or more chiral centers and
an internal plane of symmetry; the molecule is achiral.
Number projection. of stereoisomers = a molecule with n stereogenic centers (and for which a meso isomer isn’t possible) will have 2n stereoisomers.
Resolution of Racemic Mixtures projection.
one specific enantiomer leaving the other alone.
diastereoisomers. Once separated the diasteriosomeric
forms are converted back to enantiomers in separate
Z projection. isomer
E (German, entgegen for opposite) to designate the stereoisomers.
Today’s Quote projection.
One learns one’s most valuable lessons through hardships.