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Psychological Disorders 

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  1. Psychological Disorders  I. What is abnormality? II. Biological Vs. Psychological Approaches III. Major Psychological Disorders

  2. I. What is Abnormal? Psychopathology: abnormality or disorder in patterns of thought, emotion or behavior. Psychological diagnosis: label that identifies and explains mental disorders according to clinical interview and observation, testing and analysis of mental and behavioral development. DSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition)

  3. Q: How do psychologists determine what behaviors are abnormal? Abnormality usually based on 6 indicators: (usually must show two or more-Rosenhan & Seligman, 1989) 1. Distress or intense anxiety 2. Maladaptiveness 3. Irrationality 4. Unpredictability 5. Unconventionality and statistical rarity 6. Observer Discomfort

  4. II. Biological Vs Psychological (bio-psycho-social) Models Q: How have people historically approached abnormality? A. Medical Model: • Phillipe Pinel (1745-1826)

  5. Psychological Model B.Psychological Model: • Anton Mesmer (1734-1815) • Charcot: (1825-1893) • DSM-IV (1994) • bio-psycho-social: all behavior arises from an interaction of nature and nurture.

  6. III. Major Psychological Disorders A. Anxiety Disorders • Ex: Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Ex: Panic Disorders- • Agoraphobia • Ex: Phobic disorders- • Ex: Obsessive-compulsive disorders-

  7. B. Dissociative Disorders • Ex: Dissociative/Psychogenic Amnesia • Dissociative Fugue State • Ex: Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) once known as Multiple Personality Disorder: (MPD)

  8. C. Affective/Mood Disorders • Ex: Major Depressive Disorder or Unipolar depression: (20%, women, 10% men) • Ex: Bipolar disorder- (About 1% of all adults) • Mania and depression

  9. D. Schizophrenic Disorders • 2-3 million Americans living, 1/100 • Can experience hallucinations and delusions • Disorganized/illogical thinking • Disturbed perceptions • positive symptoms-things that exist-appearance of abnormality (hallucinations,delusions, disorganized bhr) • negative symptoms-social withdrawal, flat affect

  10. Schizophrenia Different Types: • Catatonic • Paranoid • Disorganized • Undifferentiated • residual: free from major symptoms but evidence from minor symptoms of continuation of disorder

  11. E. Personality Disorders Usually appear at adolescence. (12 types described by the DSM) –most controversial diagnosis. • Ex: Antisocial personality disorder • Ex: narcissistic • Ex: histrionic • Ex: borderline

  12. F. Eating Disorders • Ex: Anorexia Nervosa • approx 1% of all adolescents • Ex: Bulimia