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GR _ 1.1. Part Division of the Text. Parts. Para(s). Main Ideas. Some animals demonstrate intelligence when dealing with captivity and human beings. 1. 1~2. Some animals are intelligent enough to know how to bargain with people. 2. 3~6. GR _ 1.2. Parts. Para(s). Main Ideas.

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gr 1 1

GR _ 1.1

Part Division of the Text

Parts

Para(s)

Main Ideas

Some animals demonstrate intelligence when dealing with captivity and human beings.

1

1~2

Some animals are intelligent enough to know how to bargain with people.

2

3~6

gr 1 2

GR _ 1.2

Parts

Para(s)

Main Ideas

Animals like whales can assess a situation and act accordingly.

3

7~10

Animals can sometimes be tricky.

4

11~12

Animal intelligence is meant to serve survival.

5

13

d r text 2 s1 1

D R _ Text 2_S1.1

the kind of mental feats animals perform when dealing with captivity and the dominant species on the planet — humans.

1. What do you learn from this sentence?

Animals have the abilities to deal with human beings’ captivity though human beings are more intelligent than them.

d r text 2 s1 2

D R _ Text 2_S1.2

2. Paraphrase the sentence.

Animal show great intelligence when they deal with human beings’ captivity even though human beings control and dominate this planet.

3. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

即动物在对付樊笼生活和地球上的主宰物种——人类——时所表现的高超的思维技能。

d r text 3 s

Arriving on the scene, Jendry offered Colo some peanuts, only to be met with a blank stare.

D R _ Text 3_S

How to understand “only to”?

It is often used to indicate that sb. does sth. with a disappointing or surprising result. Infinitive “to” functions as a result adverbial.

More examples:

He hurried to the railway station, only to find that the train had left.

He had once tried inviting her out, only to meet with a rather cool response.

d r text 4 5 1 s

D R _ Text 4-5.1_S

Colo then broke the key chain and gave Jendry a link, perhaps figuring, Why give her the whole thing if I can get a bit of pineapple for each piece?

1. What conclusion can you draw about Colo?

Colo is a good bargainer, and this case shows that animals may really have intelligence.

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

科洛然后把钥匙链拉断,给了延德里一段,或许是在算计,要是每一小段都能换片菠萝,我干嘛要全都给她?

d r text 7 8 s

D R _ Text 7-8_S

This is true, but I don’t think it goes far enough.

1. Paraphrase the sentence.

What behaviorists say is right, but I don’t think their explanation helps very much.

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

这没有错,但我觉得这一解释尚不充分。

d r text 11 s

D R _ Text 11_S

Instead of moving away to get it, Melati looked Shewman in the eye and held out her hand.

Translate the sentence into Chinese.

梅拉蒂没有移动身体去接,而是眼睛直视休曼,伸出手来。

d r text 13 s1 1

D R _ Text 13_S1.1

If life is about survival of a species — and intelligence is meant to serve that survival — then we can’t compare with pea-brained sea turtles, which were here long before us and survived the disaster that wiped out the dinosaurs.

1. Paraphrase the sentence.

If the purpose of life is to survive and intelligence is for survival, then our intelligence can’t be compared with that of the pea-brained sea turtles. They were on this earth long before we human beings and they even survived the disaster that destroyed the dinosaurs.

d r text 13 s1 2

D R _ Text 13_S1.2

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

如果生命关乎物种的生存——而智能是为了生存服务——那么我们根本无法与大脑只有豌豆大小的海龟相提并论。海龟早在人类出现之前很久便已存在,并经历了使恐龙灭绝的重大灾难而生存下来。

d r text 13 s2

D R _ Text 13_S2

… even if their horizons are more limited than ours.

  • What can you infer from the sentence?

Animals’ horizons are more limited and can’t be compared with human beings’.

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

…即便它们的视野比我们还狭小。

d r text 5 2 s

D R _ Text 5.2_S

But the orangutan’s understanding of money seemed to extend far beyond simple dealings.

1. Paraphrase the sentence.

What the orangutan understands is more than just simple dealings.

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

但这头猩猩对钱币的理解似乎远远超出了简单的交易。

d r text 10 s

D R _ Text 10_S

Apparently sizing up the problem, Orky swam under the stretcher and allowed one of the men to stand on his head, something he’d never been trained to do.

1. What does the sentence imply?

Orky is a whale who can assess a situation and then do something based on the judgments he made.

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

奥基显然看出了问题,它游到担架下,让其中一人站在它头上。这种事从来没有训练它做过。

d r word intelligence

D R _ word _ intelligence

intelligence:n.

1) ability to learn and understand

The children were given an intelligence test.

2) news, information, esp. with reference to important

events

他最终搞到了敌人计划的秘密情报。

He managed to get the secret intelligence of the enemy’ s plans.

d r word controversy

controversy:n.

a lot of discussion and argument about sth., often involving strong feelings of anger or disapproval (followed by over /about)

D R _ word _ controversy

This is a question that has given rise to much controversy.

他的书的出版引起了激烈的争议。

There is a bitter / heated controversy over the publishing of his books.

Collocation:

beyond / without controversy

无可争议, 无疑,不消说

d r word explore1

explore:vt.

D R _ word _ explore1

1) examine thoroughly; learn about

工程师们已经对在这条河上建桥的可能性做了仔细探察。

The engineers have already explored the possibility of building a bridge over the river.

The repairman explored my car and said he would fix it tomorrow.

d r word explore 2

D R _ word _explore 2

2) travel over (a region, area, etc.) for the purpose of

discovery

不论大人还是孩子都认为探索太空一定非常刺激。

Both adults and children think that it must be extremely exciting to explore space.

The man will explore the Sahara Desert on foot.

d r word encounter

encounter:vt.

1) meet esp. unexpectedly

D R _ word _ encounter

他在街上偶然遇见一位老友。

He encountered an old friend on the street.

2) come up against

The more dangers we encounter, the harder we should push forward.

d r word convince

convince:vt.

make (sb.) feel certain; cause (sb.) to realize

D R _ word _ convince

我深信他的诚实。

I’m convinced of his honesty.

We finally convinced the police of our innocence.

Pattern:

be convinced of 确信,承认

be convinced that 确信,承认

convince sb. of sth. 使某人相信某事

d r word dominant

D R _ word _ dominant

dominant:adj.

ruling; stronger, more powerful, or more noticeable than other people or things

查理·卓别林是美国电影工业上极有影响力的人物。

Charlie Chaplin was a dominant figure in the American film industry.

He is a dominant person in the company.

d r word make a deal

D R _ word _ make a deal

make a deal:

reach an agreement or arrangement, esp. in business or politics

I’ll make a deal with you — you wash the car and I’ll let you use it tonight.

这家汽车公司已经和一家日本公司达成协议,由日方提供发动机来交换刹车。

The automobile company has made a deal with a Japanese firm, which will supply engines in exchange for brakes.

d r word negotiate

D R _ word _ negotiate

negotiate:vi.

discuss in order to come to an agreement

The labor decided to negotiate with the employers about their wage claims.

政府拒绝和恐怖分子谈判。

The government refused to negotiate with terrorists.

Pattern:

negotiate for sth.

negotiate to do sth.

negotiate with sb.

d r word maintain 1

D R _ word _ maintain1

maintain:vt.

1) keep up; retain; continue

他的健康正在好转中。

The improvement in his health is being maintained.

2) support

He has worked hard to maintain his family.

d r word maintain 2

CF:

maintain, support, uphold & back

D R _ word _ maintain2

这四个词都有“支持,支撑”的含义。

maintain指“使保持某种情况或状态而不受损害”,“使保持完整所给予的力量”。例如:

support 系常用词, 指“支撑”,“给某人或物以积极援助或支持”。例如:

The government maintains the law.

政府支持这项法律。

We should support each other.

我们应该相互支持。

d r word maintain 3

D R _ word _ maintain3

CF:

maintain, support, uphold & back

uphold指“对某人、某种活动、信仰等给予支持、道义上的支援或精神上的鼓舞”。例如:

back 指“支持(论点、行动、企业等)”。例如:

His words upheld me greatly.

他的话在精神上给了我很大的支持。

I’ll back you up in your demands.

我支持你的请求。

d r word maintain 4

CF:

maintain, support, uphold & back

D R _ word _ maintain4

Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary.

1.

2.

3.

4.

He was in the argument about insurance policy.

Microsoft intends to its position as market leader.

The Supreme Court is expected to the death sentence.

There was too little food to life.

backed

______

maintain

________

uphold

______

support

_______

d r word reveal

D R _ word _ reveal

reveal:vt.

1) bring to view; show

His worn jacket revealed his elbows.

2) make known (sth. concealed or secret)

这些事件总有一天会真相大白的。

One day the truth about these events will be revealed.

d r word relieve

D R _ word _ relieve

relieve:vt.

free (sb.) from pain, anxiety, etc.

Taking a part-time job would relieve you of the financial burden.

听说你已安全到达,我们就放心了。

We are relieved to hear that you have arrived safely.

Pattern:

relieve sb. of sth.

d r word undertake

undertake:vt.

carry out; take upon oneself (a task, etc.)

D R _ word _ undertake

如果我们要承担更多的工作的话,我们就得再多招些人。

We’ll have to employ more staff if we’re to undertake more work.

The United Nations is supposed to undertake the role of global peace-keeper.

d r word figure out

D R _ word _ figure out

figure out:

understand; reason out

我想不出那位戴墨镜的女士是谁。

I couldn’t figure out who the lady with the sunglasses was.

I can’t figure her out, one minute happy, the next sad.

d r word extend1

D R _ word _ extend1

extend:v.

1) (cause to ) stretch or reach

Rain is expected to extend to all parts of the country by this evening.

2) make larger or longer

我们把厨房扩大出一块吃饭的区域。

We’ve extended the kitchen to give us room for a dining area.

d r word extend2

D R _ word _ extend2

Collocation:

延续…(距离)

extend for

从…伸出来

extend from

伸出

extend out

延续…(时间),遍布

extend over

贯穿…,达到整个…的长度

extend through...

d r word extend3

CF:

extend & prolong

D R _ word _ extend3

这两个词都有“延长,伸长”的意思。

extend 可以用于比喻意义上的“延长”,或范围的“扩展”。例如:

the extended meaning of a word

词汇的引申意义

to extend (or lengthen) a road

延长道路

to extend (or lengthen) one’s stay

延长某人的逗留时间

明年将会延长这条铁路。

The railway will be extended next year.

d r word extend4

D R _ word _ extend4

CF:

prolong 通常表示时间的“延长”。 例如:

Alfred had deduced that the Danes were no longer fit for prolonged battle.

艾尔弗雷德已经推测出了丹麦人不适应持久的战争。

d r word expand1

expand:v.

1) (cause to) grow larger (in size, number or amount)

D R _ word _ expand1

The small pocket dictionary was expanded into a larger volume.

这个公司已从一个小公司发展到拥有12个分公司了。

The business has expanded from having one office to having twelve.

2) speak or write at length or in detail

The professor will expand on a hot topic in his lecture.

d r word expand2

CF:

expand & swell

D R _ word _ expand2

这两个词都有“扩展,延伸”的意思。

expand 侧重指“上下、左右、前后的面或体的伸展”。

例如:

swell 强调“由于内在的压力或外加某物而使增高或加大至超过正常情况”。例如:

Iron expands when it is heated.

铁遇热则膨胀。

His injured wrist began to swell.

他受伤的手腕开始肿起来。

d r word expand3

D R _ word _ expand3

CF:

expand & swell

Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary.

1. The enrolment of our university to 4,000

this year.

2. We have into the automobile service

market.

swelled

_______

expanded

________

d r word envy1

envy:

1. vt. wish that you had a quality or possession that

another person has

D R _ word _ envy1

I don’t envy you for your journey in this bad weather.

他突然成了百万富翁,许多人都羡慕他的好运。

He became a millionaire overnight. Many people envied him for his good luck.

Pattern:

envy sb. / sth.

envy sb. sth.

envy sb. for sth.

d r word envy 2

D R _ word _ envy 2

  • 2. n.
  • feeling of disappointment and resentment (at another’s
  • better fortune)
  • 2) object of such feeling

She was filled with envy at her sister’s success.

他那部豪华的新车是他所有的朋友羡慕的东西。

His splendid new car was the envy of all his friends.

Collocation:

非常嫉妒

lost in envy

d r word in one s interest

in one’s interest (s):

for or to one’s advantage

D R _ word _ in one’s interest

The local government has to abandon the plan for a new chemical plant because it is not in the public interest.

尽管这项工作很难,但你承担下来对你是会有利的。

It would be in your interests to undertake this task although it’s very difficult.

Collocation:

失去兴趣

lose interest

对…产生兴趣

take interest in

有兴趣地

with interest

d r word judgment 1

judgment:n.

D R _ word _ judgment 1

1) opinion about sth.

在你看来是什么导致学生们考试不及格?

In your judgment, what has caused the students’ failure in the examination?

The manager made an unfair judgment of his new secretary’s work.

d r word judgment 2

D R _ word _ judgment 2

2) ability to form valuable opinions and make good decisions

He showed excellent judgment in choosing the wine.

我很钦佩爸爸的判断力,每件事都听他的建议。

I respect my father’s judgment and always follow any advice he gives me.

d r word at first1

at first:

at the beginning

D R _ word _ at first1

一开始天挺热,但后来变凉了。

At first it was very hot, but then it got cooler.

Jenny felt tired at first, but soon got used to the hard training.

CF:

at first, first & firstly

这三个词(组)都表示“起先,开始”的意思。

at first用于提及有先后顺序的事物,或事件中的前者。例如:

I rejected his invitation at first, but I changed my mind two days later.

起初,我拒绝了他的邀请;但是,两天后,我改变了主意。

d r word at first2

CF:

first 和firstly 用于陈述一系列的原因、观点等,或指在另一特指的时间以前。常与second,secondly,third,thirdly 等连用。例如:

D R _ word _ at first2

I must finish my homework first.

我必须首先完成作业。

CF:

at first, first & firstly

Fill in the blanks with the words or phrase above. Change the form where necessary.

First / Firstly

1.

____________

I’d like to tell you some background

information, then I’ll explain some difficult sentences in the text.

d r word at first3

CF:

at first, first & firstly

D R _ word _at first3

2.

3.

4.

When people get their newspaper, which page do

they read ?

You’ll find it difficult , but later it’ll get easier.

There are two reasons. , there is no

evidence that the original documents have been

destroyed. Second, Jack saw them the day before

yesterday.

first

____

at first

______

First

____

d r word go wrong

D R _ word _go wrong

go wrong:

stop working properly; experience trouble

I didn’t watch the live opening ceremony of the World Cup yesterday because my television went wrong again.

All their plans went wrong.

d r word size up

D R _ word _size up

size up:

carefully examine (a situation or person ) in order to make a judgment

父亲审查我男朋友的方式让我感到难堪。

I felt embarrassed by the way my father sized up my boyfriend.

I don’t like the way the sales assistants in that shop size you up as you walk through the door.

d r word release1

D R _ word _ release1

  • release:vt.
  • free from sth. that binds, fastens, or holds back; let go

动物园的一些动物被从笼里放了出来。

Some animals in the zoo had been released from their cages.

Death finally released him from the cancer torture.

d r word release2

D R _ word _ release2

2) allow (news) to be known or published; allow (a film) to be exhibited or (goods) to be placed on sale

昨天我买了一些迈克尔·杰克逊最新出的唱片。

I bought some recently released discs of Michael Jackson yesterday.

His new novel about September 11 terrorist attack was released last week.

d r word deceive

deceive:vt.

try to make (sb.) believe sth. that is false

D R _ word _deceive

You deceived me, and I can’t forgive you.

他们欺骗老人,让他在文件上签字。

They deceived the old man into signing the papers.

He that once deceives is ever suspected.

[谚]骗人一次,受疑一世。

Pattern:

deceive sb.

deceive sb. into (doing) sth.

d r word look sb in the eye1

D R _ word _ look sb. in the eye1

look sb. in the eye:

look directly and steadily at sb. because you are not

embarrassed or ashamed

I couldn’t look him in the eye afterwards, knowing that I had lost all that money.

你能看着我说不是你打破玻璃吗?

Can you look me in the eye and say you didn’t break the window?

d r word look sb in the eye2

D R _ word _ look sb. in the eye2

Collocation:

look about

环视

look after

照料,照顾,照管

look down on

看不起,轻视

look forward to

盼望,期待

look into

朝…里面看;调查,观察

look up to

尊敬,钦佩

d r word original1

D R _ word _ original1

original:adj.

1) first or earliest

原先的计划优于我们所执行的计划。

The original plan was better than the plan we followed.

The land was returned to the original owner.

Later models of the car retained many of the original features.

d r word original2

D R _ word _ original2

2) newly formed or created; not copied or imitated

他新买的衬衫是范思哲的原创。

His newly bought shirt is an original design of Versace.

d r word survive1

survive: v.

1) remain alive

D R _ word _ survive1

A few were killed but most survived in the earthquake.

2) continue to live or exist after

她在车祸中幸存下来。

She survived the accident.

CF:

survive, outlive & outlast

都含有“比别的人或别的物存在的时间长”的意思。

survive指“幸存”,也可以用于指比另一物活得更久。例如:

Ten of them survived the shipwreck.

他们中有10人在海难中幸存下来。

d r word survive2

D R _ word _ survive2

CF:

outlive 指“活得比…长久”,“比(某物)经久”。例如:

outlast 指“比…耐久”,“比…活得更久”。 outlast经常可与 outlive互换使用,强调更长时间的延续。例如:

The ship outlived the storm.

小船熬过了暴风雨。

He will outlast me.

他会比我长寿。

d r word wipe out

wipe out:

get rid of or destroy

D R _ word _wipe out

银行同意将他们的债务一笔勾销。

The bank agreed to wipe out their debts.

The population of the island was almost wiped out by the disease.

a r ue1

A R _ UE1

Useful Expressions

1. 为了自己的利益

serve one’s own purpose

2. 动物智慧

animal intelligence

3. 达成交易

make a deal

4. 白眼

a blank stare

5. 精明的还价者

a careful bargainer

6. 理解,悟出

figure out

a r ue2

A R _ UE2

7. 道德习惯

virtuous habits

8. 为了某人的利益

in one’s interest

9. 作出判断

make judgments

10. 起先

at first

11. 紧急救护

emergency care

12. 出故障,有毛病

go wrong

13. 呕吐

throw up

a r ue3

A R _ UE3

14. 估量,判断

size up

15. 保持平衡

keep steady

16. 滑入

slide into

17. 离开

move off

18. 凝视

hold one’s gaze steadily

19. 让步,屈服

give in

20. 消灭,消除

wipe out