Classifying Animals- Ch. 19 Objectives: Learn how biologists classify animals with their features, obtaining and digesting food, and respiratory and circulation in the animal.
Do Now: • Are all animals classified the same? • What are some different classifications of animals?
Classifying Animals • More than 1 million different kinds of animals have been identified in the world. • Divide into groups based on similarities. • Birds: Falcons, Sparrows, Geese
The Seven Levels of Classifiction • Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species (King Philip came over for great soup) • Species: represents a single type of organism. A group of organisms that can breed with one other to produce offspring like themselves.
A Place for Every Organism • Every organism that has been identified has its own place in the classification system. • Organisms that are very similar belong to the same genus. • Some classification groups have a large number of species, where others have just a few. • Order Coleoptera has over 360,000, while Proboscidea only has 2 (African elephant and Asian elephant)
Scientific Names • Most people call animals by common names • Mountain lion: aka puma, cougar, catmount, and American Panther. • June Bug: at least a dozen different beetles that have the same name, so no way of knowing which species it is. • The same animal may have different names in different animals as well: Owl- gufo (Italian), hibou (French), and buho Spanish)
Scientific Names • Biologists give each species a specific name. • Consists of 2 words • The organisms genus, and the species label. • Mountain Lion: Felisconcolor (Felisconcolor) – always italic or underlined and the first word is capital but second is not. • What is the scientific name for the African elephant? • The scientific name of each species is unique- the scientific name is the same around the world.
Objective Recap: • What are the 7 classification groups called? – in order • How are scientific names written, and what classification groups are used to identify the species?
Vertebrates- Lesson 2 • Objective: Learn the 5 classifications of vertebrates.
Vertebrates • Animal with a backbone • Nearly 50,000 species of vertebrates in the world
Features of Vertebrates • 3 features that make them different. • Internal skeleton- made of bone or cartilage (some other animals have internal skeleton but it is made of different material) • Backbone- made of tiny smaller bones or blocks of cartilage called a vertebra • Skull- surrounds and protects the brain • Divided into 7 classes- • 3 fish • Other 4 amphibians, birds, reptiles, and mammals.
Fish • Over 24,000 species of fish- more species of fish than any other kind of vertebrate • All live in water and breathe with gills • Most have skeletons made of bone- called bony fish (bass, trout, salmon, etc.) • Body is covered with scales that overlap- protection and smooth • Swim bladder- filled with gas- by changing amount of gas can move up and down
Fish • Sharks, rays, and skates are 2nd type • Skeleton made of cartilage not bone • Powerful jaws and rows of teeth • Tiny scales make skin feel like sandpaper
Fish • Lampreys and hagfish are 3rd type • Jawless fish and no scales • Skeleton made of cartilage
Amphibians • Amphibians have smooth, scaleless skin which is permeable to water. Water can evaporate easily from the skin, and an amphibian can dry up and die in a few hours if it does not have access to water. Thus amphibians tend to be active at times when evaporation is minimized: at night and when it rains.
Amphibians • About 5,000 species of frogs, toads, and salamanders. • Amphibian- Greek word meaning “double life” • Part of life in water and rest on land • What is an example of an amphibian? • Frogs go through metamorphosis- a major change in form that occurs as some animals develop into adults
Amphibians • Adults breathe with lungs or through skin • Skin is thin and needs to stay moist • Eggs don’t have shells so must be laid in water or where the ground is wet.
Reptiles • Reptiles were the world's first truly terrestrial vertebrates. All reptiles have scaly skin that can withstand dessication and lay eggs with hard shells, therefore they are not tied to the water like their relatives, the amphibians. Since they can live on land, they also have an expanded lung system. • What are some examples of reptiles? • Reptiles include turtles, crocodilians, lizards, snakes and tuatara (found only in New Zealand).
Reptiles • Snakes, lizards, turtles, alligators, and crocodiles • About 7,000 species • Either live in the water (sea turtle) or on land (tortoise) • Skin is scaly and watertight- can live in dry places without drying out.
Reptiles • Most lay eggs on land • Have a soft shell to not let baby from drying out • All breathe with lungs so must come for air if live in water. • Dinosaurs were reptiles
Cold/Warm Blooded • Fish, amphibians, and reptiles are cold-blooded • Body temperature changes with the temperature of their surroundings • Birds and mammals are warm-blooded • Body temperature stays the same with change of temperature of surroundings
Birds • More than 9,000 species • Almost all can fly • Have feathers- allow lift and smooth lines of body • Have hollow bones that keep skeleton light
Birds • Flying requires a lot of energy so need to eat frequently • Feathers keep bird warm • All birds breathe with lungs and beaks that are like a horn • Birds lay eggs with hard shells
Mammals • Named for mammary gland- milk producing structures on the chest or abdomen • More than 4,000 species have young that develop inside mother (bears, dogs, humans) and 300 have babies that develop in a pouch on the mother (opossum, kangaroo). The duck- billed platypus and spiny anteater are the only mammals that lay eggs.
Mammals • Have hair that covers most of the body • Hair helps keep in body heat • Most live on land, but some live in water (whales and porpoises) • All breathe with lungs
Invertebrates- Lesson 3 • Objective: describe the features of sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, roundworms, segmented worms, mollusks, echinoderms, and artropods.
By the end of the lesson you will be able to answer: • How do sponges feed? • Contrast radial and bilateral symmetry. • Give an example of a flat worm, round worm and segmented worm. • Explain why arthropods molt. • How do echinoderms move?
Invertebrates • Does not have a backbone • Makes up 97% of all animal species • Belong to more than 30 phyla
Sponges • Simplest animals bodies have 2 layers of cells without any tissues or organs • All 10,000 species live in water • Strain food particles out of water as water goes through it • A sponge used in the bath is the skeleton of a dead sponge
Cnidarians • Jellyfish, corals, and hydra • About 10,000 species all live in water • Body parts are arranges like spokes on wheels- radial symmetry
Flatworms • Flat and thin • Left half and right half are the same- bilateral symmetry • More than 20,000 species- most are parasites that live in other animals
Flatworms • Ex: tapeworm-parasite that lives in the intestine of vertebrates and absorbs nutrients through their skin • People can get if eat infected meat that has not been cooked enough
Roundworms • Long round bodies that come to a point at the ends • Binary symmetry • Most of the 80,000 species are not parasitic • Live in soil or water • Some that live in soil eat insect pests so good for plants • About 150 are parasitic- many live in humans- hookworm go through the skin when people walk barefoot in places that are not clean
This is an example of a parasitic roundworm, Ascaris, in a young child. Trichinella is responsible for the most serious roundworm-caused disease, which is known as trichinosis. They live in pigs’ intestines and produce young that make their way to muscle tissue and form tough cysts. Source: www.personal.psu.edu/.../Human%20Impact.htm
Segmented Worms • Body divided into many sections • Live in soil, freshwater, or the ocean • 15,000 species
Segmented Worms Earthworms Leeches - eat small invertebrates, some are parasites Parasites attach to skin of vertebrates and feed on blood.- While feeding, leeches release a chemical that keeps blood flowing • tunnel through soil and allow air to enter it which helps plants grow
Enter the leech. Not only does it suck out excess blood, but its saliva contains a powerful blood thinner. So even after it fills up and drops off, bleeding continues. • Douglas Chepeha, an ear, nose and throat surgeon at the University of Michigan, treats two or three patients a year with leeches after rebuilding faces or mouths decimated by cancer. • Typically, leeches are used one at a time and replaced as they drop off — usually every 20 minutes — for 24 to 48 hours, then intermittently for a few days afterward, Chepeha says.
Mollusks • More than 112,000 species • Divide into 3 parts- head, body, foot • Live on land, fresh water, or oceans
Mollusks • Snails and slugs make up largest group • Others include clams, scallops, and oysters • Shell is made of 2 hinged pieces that open and close • Squid and octopus do not have outer shell, but can swim quickly as hunt for fish and other animals.
Arthropods • Largest group of invertebrates. • Make up more that ¾ all animals species • Major groups include: crustaceans, arachnids, centipedes, millipedes, and insects
Arthropods • Segmented animals with joined legs • Most have antennae which use to feel, taste, or smell • All have external skeleton that supports the body and protects the tissues inside • Can bend at joints • External skeleton is not able to grow so must shed its skeleton to grow
Arthropods • Shedding skeleton is called molting • Begins to produce a new skeleton before it molts. • After molting, it takes a few days to harden completely • Soft shelled crabs at restaurants are crabs that have just molted
Arthropods • Crustaceans:Lobsters, Crabs, Crayfish (live in water- 5 pairs of legs- claws to handle food) Sow bugs and pill bugs live on land (under rocks and other moist areas)
Arthropods • Arachnids: Spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks • 70,000 species • most live on land • have 4 pairs of legs
Arthropods • Centipedes (2,5000 species) and Millipedes (10,000 species) • live on land • bodies have up to 175 segments with 1 pair of legs on each