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Chapter 2 – Perception and Learning. Part 1: Perception January 27, 2009. Perception. Combining, integrating, & interpreting info – 3 stages 1. Selection – influenced by internal & external factors. Internal – implications? External – implications?

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chapter 2 perception and learning

Chapter 2 – Perception and Learning

Part 1: Perception

January 27, 2009

perception
Perception
  • Combining, integrating, & interpreting info – 3 stages
  • 1. Selection – influenced by internal & external factors.
    • Internal – implications?
    • External – implications?
    • What is figural (salient) versus background (filler)?
perception stages cont
Perception (stages cont…)
  • 2. Organization
    • Use schemas to make sense and infer relationships among targets
      • Correspondent inferences -
    • Schemas differ between people
    • …leading to incorrect inferences
      • Focus on ‘weak’ situations for more information?
slide4
3. Evaluation
    • Interpret events in subjective fashion – influenced by biases
    • Can be barrier to cross-cultural communication
    • Adler’s sources of cultural misinterpretation
      • What are these?
      • Subconscious cultural blinders –
      • Projected similarity –
attribution process kelley
Attribution Process - Kelley
  • Attribute actions to internal (trait) or external (situation) causes
  • Consensus –defined as…
  • Consistency – defined as…
  • Distinctiveness – defined as…
attribution
Attribution
  • Why is your friend complaining about her manager?
  • Assume high consensus & distinctiveness, but low consistency – which attribution is predominant?
  • Assume low consensus & distinctiveness, but high consistency – which attribution?
attribution errors
Attribution errors
  • Self-serving bias
    • What is the bias?
    • Generalizability to other cultures?
  • Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE)
    • Opposite of self-serving (judging others)
    • What is the error?
    • Linked to perf appraisals
  • Halo effect –
  • (** See book for similar-to-me, selective perception, Pygmalion & Golem effects, performance appraisals and selection applications**)
perceptions of performance appraisals
Perceptions of Performance Appraisals
  • DeNisi & Gonzalez (2004) – propose importance of ratee’s perceptions of the appraisal:
  • How would each of these help?
    • 1. importance of clear standards –
    • 2. simple-to-use rating instruments –
      • Example of performance diaries or incident logs
stereotyping
Stereotyping
  • Dangers of relying on stereotype of group to categorize a person from that group
  • Reasons stereotypes can become problematic?
    • 1)
    • 2)
    • 3)
  • Stereotype threat – fear being evaluated by stereotype  lowers performance
    • Examples?
johari window
Johari Window
  • One way to minimize biases by making people aware of their values, prejudices
  • Divides info about you into 4 ‘windows’ based on whether your values/beliefs are known to you & others
    • Open, blind, hidden, unknown areas
    • What is the goal?
johari window11
Johari Window

Feedback

Disclosure

johari window cont
Johari Window (cont.)
  • Can work w/360 degree feedback program
  • Problems:
    • 1)
    • 2)
    • 3)
dual attitude system
Dual Attitude System
  • Wilson proposed we have implicit (subconscious) attitudes & explicit (stated) attitudes
    • Implicit –
    • Explicit –
    • See www.understandingprejudice.org/iat/
    • How does it measure each type of attitude?