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Chapter 16: Troubleshooting. Learning Objectives. Develop your own problem-solving strategy Use the Event Viewer to locate and diagnose problems Troubleshoot configuration, security, connectivity, and network printing problems. Learning Objectives (continued).

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Chapter 16 troubleshooting

Chapter 16:Troubleshooting


Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

  • Develop your own problem-solving strategy

  • Use the Event Viewer to locate and diagnose problems

  • Troubleshoot configuration, security, connectivity, and network printing problems


Learning objectives continued
Learning Objectives (continued)

  • Troubleshoot boot problems, using a variety of tools including the emergency repair disk, safe mode, and the recovery console

  • Back up and restore system state data


Problem solving strategy
Problem Solving Strategy

  • Develop a problem solving strategy to help you troubleshoot more effectively such as:

    • Understanding how the server and network interact

    • Training users to help you solve problems

    • Learning the essential business processes of your organization


Using network diagrams
Using Network Diagrams

  • Create network diagrams to help determine the location of specific problems


Training users
Training Users

  • Train users to work as allies in solving network and server problems by:

    • Learning to save their work when a problem occurs

    • Precisely recording error messages

    • Quickly reporting error situations and the conditions under which they occurred


Learning business processes
Learning Business Processes

  • Learn the essential business processes of your organization and use this knowledge to help you locate and solve problems more rapidly


Solving problems step by step
Solving Problems Step by Step

  • Develop a thorough step-by-step approach to solving problems:

    • Get as much information as possible before you start

    • Obtain the precise wording of error messages

    • Start with simple solutions

    • Determine how many people are affected


Solving problems step by step continued
Solving Problems Step by Step (continued)

  • Check for alerts sent to your account

  • Check the event logs

  • Use System Monitor filtering

  • Check for local power problems


Tracking problems and solutions
Tracking Problems and Solutions

  • Keep a database or log of problems and how they were solved, so that later you don’t have to guess how the same or a similar problem was solved in the past


Using run as
Using Run As

  • Sometimes you have to work on problems when someone else is logged on or from another person’s computer. Try using the Run as option so you do not have to log off that account to have Administrator privileges.


Using the windows 2000 server logs for troubleshooting
Using the Windows 2000 Server Logs for Troubleshooting

  • Windows 2000 Server records valuable notification information in event logs:

    • System log: An event log that records information about system-related events such as hardware errors, driver problems, and hard drive errors

    • Security log: An event log that records access and security information about logon accesses, file, folder, and system policy changes


Using the windows 2000 server logs for troubleshooting continued
Using the Windows 2000 Server Logs for Troubleshooting (continued)

  • Application log: An event log that records information about how software applications are performing

  • Directory Service log: An event log that records events that are associated with the Active Directory, such as updates to the Active Directory, events related to the Active Directory’s database, replication events, and startup and shutdown events


Using the windows 2000 server logs for troubleshooting continued1
Using the Windows 2000 Server Logs for Troubleshooting (continued)

  • DNS Server log: An event log that provides information about events associated with the DNS Server, such as instances in which DNS information is updated, when there are problems with the DNS service, and when the DNS Server has started successfully after booting

  • File Replication Service log: An event log that contains information about file replication events such as changes to file replication, when the service has started, and completed replication tasks


Sample information in the system log
Sample Information in (continued)the System Log

  • Type of event

  • Date and time of the event

  • Source of the event

  • Category of the event

  • Event number

  • User account involved

  • Computer involved


Viewing an event log
Viewing an Event Log (continued)

Figure 16-1 Event Viewer


Viewing a specific event
Viewing a Specific Event (continued)

Figure 16-2 Viewing a system log event


Troubleshooting tip
Troubleshooting Tip (continued)

  • If a server suddenly crashes or is not functioning normally, make the system log your first stop to look for a problem


Event log filtering
Event Log Filtering (continued)

  • You can look for specific events in a log by setting up a filter on criteria such as:

    • Event type, including warning, error, information, success audit, failure audit

    • Event source

    • Event category

    • Event ID

    • User account

    • Computer

    • Date range

    • Time range


Setting up an event log filter
Setting Up an Event Log Filter (continued)

Figure 16-3 Creating a system log filter


Event log configuration
Event Log Configuration (continued)

  • There are several options for maintaining event logs:

    • To size each log to prevent it from filling to fast

    • To regularly clear each log before it is full

    • To automatically override the oldest events when a log is full


Event log configuration continued
Event Log Configuration (continued) (continued)

Figure 16-4 Configuring event log settings


Troubleshooting server configuration problems
Troubleshooting Server Configuration Problems (continued)

  • Steps you can take to troubleshooting server configuration problems include:

    • Check the event logs

    • Check the Control Panel Add/Remove Programs tool for components that need further configuration

    • Use the Configure Your Server tool in the Administrative Tools menu


Troubleshooting server configuration problems continued
Troubleshooting Server Configuration Problems (continued) (continued)

Figure 16-5

Checking to make sure a Windows component is configured


Troubleshooting server configuration problems continued1
Troubleshooting Server Configuration Problems (continued) (continued)

  • Use the Control Panel tools to solve configuration problems

  • Use the Network and Dial-up Connections tool to solve connectivity problems

  • Use tools such as Device Manager that are available in the Computer Management tool


Troubleshooting server configuration problems continued2
Troubleshooting Server Configuration Problems (continued) (continued)

Figure 16-6 Using Device Manager to find a configuration conflict


Troubleshooting connectivity problems
Troubleshooting Connectivity Problems (continued)

  • To troubleshoot connectivity problems:

    • Determine how many stations are experiencing the problem

    • Check the server’s NIC connection

    • Verify the protocol setup

    • Make sure the NIC is properly configured and has the most recent driver

    • Make sure clients are set up for the correct domain or workgroup


Troubleshooting connectivity problems continued
Troubleshooting Connectivity Problems (continued) (continued)

  • Check cable connections and connectors

  • Examine network cable for damage


Troubleshooting connectivity problems continued1
Troubleshooting Connectivity Problems (continued) (continued)

Figure 16-7 Troubleshooting the NIC media type









Troubleshooting tcp ip connectivity
Troubleshooting TCP/IP Connectivity (continued)

  • Windows 2000 Server includes command line tools that can be used to troubleshoot TCP/IP connectivity problems (many of these tools are also available in Windows 2000, Windows NT, Windows 98, and Windows 95 clients)


Ipconfig
Ipconfig (continued)

  • Ipconfig is an example of a TCP/IP troubleshooting tool used to confirm information such as the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway of the Windows 2000 Server


Ipconfig continued
Ipconfig (continued) (continued)

Figure 16-8 Using ipconfig


Ping (continued)

Figure 16-9 Using ping



Cable problems
Cable Problems Connectivity

  • When network communication problems occur, check for cable problems as one source


Troubleshooting cable problems
Troubleshooting Cable Problems Connectivity

Table 16-3 Troubleshooting Cable Problems


Troubleshooting cable problems continued
Troubleshooting Cable ConnectivityProblems (continued)


Troubleshooting cable problems continued1
Troubleshooting Cable ConnectivityProblems (continued)


Troubleshooting cable problems continued2
Troubleshooting Cable ConnectivityProblems (continued)


Troubleshooting cable problems continued3
Troubleshooting Cable ConnectivityProblems (continued)


Troubleshooting network printing problems
Troubleshooting Network Printing Problems Connectivity

  • Try the simplest solutions first when troubleshooting network printing difficulties, such as checking printer connectivity


Troubleshooting network printing problems1
Troubleshooting Network Printing Problems Connectivity

Table 16-4 Troubleshooting Network Printing Problems







Changing a password
Changing a Password Connectivity

  • To change an account password when a user has forgotten his or hers:

    • Open the Active Directory Users and Computers tool

    • Open the container in which the account resides

    • Right-click the account and click Reset Password

    • Enter the new password, confirm it, and click User must change password at next logon


Using auditing for troubleshooting
Using Auditing for Troubleshooting Connectivity

  • To help resolve why an account cannot access certain resources, audit those resources and check the security log

  • Also, use resource auditing to track intruders


Using the system security and analysis tool
Using the System Security and Analysis Tool Connectivity

  • The System Security and Analysis tool can be used to set up default security and to later analyze existing security for problems


Using the system security and analysis tool continued
Using the System Security and Analysis Tool (continued) Connectivity

Figure 16-10 Checking system security


Using the system security and analysis tool continued1
Using the System Security and Analysis Tool (continued) Connectivity

Figure 16-11 Security analysis results


Resolving boot problems
Resolving Boot Problems Connectivity

  • Boot problems can be caused by:

    • Disk failure

    • Corrupted partition table

    • Corrupted boot file

    • Corrupted master boot record

    • Disk read error


Troubleshooting tip1
Troubleshooting Tip Connectivity

  • When you first experience a boot problem, try rebooting to see if it is a transient error


Safe mode
Safe Mode Connectivity

  • Safe mode: A boot mode that enables Windows 2000 Server to be booted using the most generic default settings, such as for the display


Accessing the safe mode
Accessing the Safe Mode Connectivity

  • To access the safe mode:

    • Reboot the computer

    • Press F8

    • Select the desired safe mode option in the Advanced Options Menu

    • Highlight Windows 2000 Server as the operating system and press Enter


Accessing the safe mode continued
Accessing the Safe ConnectivityMode (continued)

Figure 16-12

Advanced Options Menu for booting Windows 2000 Server


Advanced menu options
Advanced Menu Options Connectivity

Table 16-5 Advanced Menu Options


Advanced menu options continued
Advanced Menu ConnectivityOptions (continued)


Advanced menu options continued1
Advanced Menu ConnectivityOptions (continued)


Using the emergency repair disk
Using the Emergency ConnectivityRepair Disk

  • Use the emergency repair disk if you cannot boot or solve a problem via safe mode


Accessing the emergency repair disk
Accessing the Emergency ConnectivityRepair Disk

  • To access the ERD:

    • Boot from the Windows 2000 Server CD-ROM or Setup Disk 1

    • Press R on the Welcome to Setup screen

    • Press R again on the next screen

    • Insert the ERD

    • Select M to manually select what to repair or select F to perform all repair options

    • Follow the repair instructions


Accessing the emergency repair disk continued
Accessing the Emergency ConnectivityRepair Disk (continued)

Figure 16-13 Accessing the repair option


Accessing the emergency repair disk continued1
Accessing the Emergency ConnectivityRepair Disk (continued)

Figure 16-14 Repair options


Troubleshooting tip2
Troubleshooting Tip Connectivity

  • Keep the ERD updated after each key change to Windows 2000 Server so that you can troubleshoot using the most recent configuration information


Using the recovery console for troubleshooting
Using the Recovery Console Connectivityfor Troubleshooting

  • Recovery console: A recovery tool that enables you to boot directly into the Windows 2000 Server command line to perform recovery and troubleshooting operations. The Recovery Console can be added as a boot option, started from the Windows 2000 Server CD-ROM, or started from the Windows 2000 Server floppy installation disks.


Recovery console command options
Recovery Console ConnectivityCommand Options

  • Some examples of commands that can be used from the recovery console are:

    • chkdsk

    • disable

    • diskpart

    • enable

    • fixboot

    • fixmbr

    • format



Troubleshooting boot problems continued
Troubleshooting Boot ConnectivityProblems (continued)


Troubleshooting boot problems continued1
Troubleshooting Boot ConnectivityProblems (continued)


Troubleshooting boot problems continued2
Troubleshooting Boot ConnectivityProblems (continued)


Troubleshooting boot problems continued3
Troubleshooting Boot ConnectivityProblems (continued)


Troubleshooting boot problems associated with stop messages
Troubleshooting Boot Problems Associated with Stop Messages Connectivity

Table 16-7 Troubleshooting Boot Problems Associated with Stop Messages







System state data
System State Data (continued)

  • Plan to back up important system state data so that it can be recovered, if necessary.


System state data elements
System State Data Elements (continued)

  • System state data consists of:

    • System and boot files

    • Active Directory

    • SYSVOL folder

    • Registry

    • COM+ Class Registration information

    • DNS zones (if installed)

    • Certificate information (if installed)

    • Server cluster data (if installed)


Backing up system state data using the backup tool
Backing Up System State Data Using the Backup Tool (continued)

Figure 16-15 Backing up system state data


Protected system files
Protected System Files (continued)

  • Plan to backup the protected system files along with the system state data

  • The protected system files include:

    • Ntldr

    • Bootsect.dos

    • Boot.ini

    • Ntdetect.com

    • Ntbootdd.sys

    • Ntoskrnl.exe

    • Hal.dll


Restoring a failed system volume
Restoring a Failed (continued)System Volume

  • To restore a failed system volume:

    • Replace the failed hardware

    • Install Windows 2000 Server from the CD-ROM

    • Use the Backup utility to restore system state data and all other data using the most recent backup tapes


Chapter summary
Chapter Summary (continued)

  • Develop a problem solving strategy that matches your equipment and organization’s needs

  • Develop familiarity with the troubleshooting tools in Windows 2000 Server, such as the Event Viewer, System Monitor, Network Monitor, the Network and Dial-up Connections tool, safe mode, and recovery console


Chapter summary1
Chapter Summary (continued)

  • Learn to use the right troubleshooting tool for the job

  • Plan to keep the ERD updated for future troubleshooting

  • View troubleshooting situations as an opportunity to better understand your organization, its network, and the Windows 2000 servers on the network


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