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Exercise and Performance

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  1. Exercise and Performance Anaerobic Energy System Presented by Emily Waldron, Meagan Ford, Jenna Fullard, Steve Marchment and Craig Bessell

  2. ATP-PC Energy System • This system provides the bulk of ATP production during high intensity, short duration events. E.g. 100m sprint, shot-put. • Anaerobic = Absence of Oxygen. • Operates as the dominant supplier of ATP up to 10 seconds of maximal effort. • Energy is released through the break down of chemical bonds on the ATP molecule. • ATP is broken down during muscular contractions, it is continuously reformed from ADP by the energy produced during the breakdown of the PC. • PC – Phosphocreatine is found in the muscle and is released to reform ATP from ADP.

  3. ATP-PC Energy System http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=idFH1C89dXk

  4. Anaerobic Energy System • Also known as ‘Lactic Acid’ or ‘Anaerobic Glycolysis’ system. • Anaerobic = Absence of Oxygen. • This system provides the bulk of ATP production during high intensity, sub-maximal efforts. • The anaerobic breakdown of glucose to lactic acid in the production of energy (ATP). • Operates as the dominate supplier of ATP in the period from around 15 seconds to maximal effort to around 60 seconds. • Linked to several fitness components; Anaerobic Power, Local Muscular Endurance, Speed and Muscular Power. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rwhJlgIy77o&feature=related

  5. Interaction between Energy Systems All three energy systems contribute at the start of exercise but the contribution depends upon the individual, the effort applied or on the rate at which energy is used. The following graph shows how each of the energy systems contributes to ATP over time when exercising at 100% effort. The thresholds (T) indicate the point at which the energy system is exhausted.

  6. Energy Systems in Sport • This diagram shows the contributions of each energy system during particular sports/ activities. • ATP-PC system 95% in golf swing. • Lactic system 55% in swimming 50 metres.

  7. Speed • The fitness component where the performer is able to either move the whole body as quickly as possible from point A to B, or move a body part as quickly as possible as the activity demands. • E.g. Sprinting and the arm during shot put.

  8. Power • The rate of performing work, the product of force and velocity. It is the explosive aspect of strength, the product of strength and speed of movement. • 2 fitness components - strength and speed. • Eg. Long jump or High jump

  9. Work • The application of a force through a distance. • E.g.Application of 1 kg through 1 metre = 1kg/1 metre of work (Fox, Bowers & Foss, 1988).

  10. Velocity • The speed of something in a given direction. • E.g. Hammer throw • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5FxCHGcNlg

  11. Post Exercise Oxygen Consumption • Elevated oxygen consumption above resting levels after exercise. • Formally known as ‘Oxygen Debt’. • EPOC is the amount of O2 consumed during recovery, above resting levels.

  12. Post Exercise Oxygen Consumption • There are 2 components involved in O2 debt. • 1) Alactacid (Fast) – the portion of oxygen required to synthesise and restore muscle phosphagen stores. • 2) Lactacid O2 debt (Slow) - the portion of oxygen required to remove lactic acid from the muscle cells and blood .

  13. Sources of Fatigue Fatigue - mental or physical exhaustion that stops a person from being able to function normally. • General sensations of tiredness; accompanying decrements in muscular performance. Sources • Depletion of PCr stores or muscle glycogen stores; both of these impair ATP production. • Neuromuscular failure- inability to recruit muscle fibres and thus, muscular contractions. • CNS plays a role in most types of fatigue. • Accumulation of metabolic by products such as lactate and hydrogen ions.

  14. Metabolic by Product Removal • Lactate – removed via Gluconeogenesis or Oxidation. • Gluconeogenesis – conversion of lactate to glucose through the Cori cycle in the liver. This process consumes energy (endergonic reaction) and occurs without oxygen. This is the faster of the two reactions. • Oxidation – lactate is converted to pyruvate, an energy releasing reaction (exergonic), and this leads in to the citric acid cycle (TCA or Krebs cycle). This is a slower reaction. Only occurs if oxygen is present.

  15. Metabolic by Product Removal • Hydrogen ions – causes a decrease in blood pH. These are removed by buffers such as bicarbonate. Males have more bicarbonate and can therefore tolerate higher levels of lactate in the blood, and the hydrogen ions dissipate quicker post exercise. • E.g. A pH below 6.9 results in limited glycogen breakdown, thus causing a rapid decrease in ATP production.

  16. Wingate Anaerobic Test • Developed in the 1970’s. • One of the most popular assessments for peak anaerobic power, anaerobic fatigue and total anaerobic capacity. • Aim - to estimate the potential of the ATP-PC and Lactic Acid energy systems. • How - 30 second maximal effort on the bike. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jBs7VTqVYX8

  17. Wingate Anaerobic Test • 4 participants -people riding bike. • Timer - communicates the stages of procedure with stopwatch. • Force Setter - calculates the force requires and changes it accordingly. • Revolutions Counter - counts the revolutions of the bike wheel in 5 second intervals. • Heart-rate monitor - calls out heart rate at 5 second intervals. • Recorder - weight, room temperature, heart rate and revolutions. • Lactate Measurers - pre-test, post test and 3 min follow up. • FORCE SETTINGS • 1) Weigh subject • 2) Convert kg in Newton's 9.80665 * kg EXAMPLE • 3) Categorize subject 9.80665 * 60 = 588.399 (N) • A) active adult female= BM(N) * .086 588.399 * .086 = 50.60 • B) active adult male= BM(N) * .090 Force = 50.6 • C) anaerobic athlete= BM(N) * .10

  18. Wingate Anaerobic Test • Now we can do the test!!!!!!!!!!!!

  19. Results • Take this time to copy down all results. Please note: If you do not get these results they will be up on LMS at the completion of this lab.

  20. Blood lactate • Why is blood lactate increased at post test? • Why does blood lactate continue to increase at follow up? • What are some gender differences in lactate?

  21. Peak Anaerobic PowerRelative Peak Power

  22. Anaerobic Capacity & Anaerobic Fatigue • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jBs7VTqVYX8

  23. Questions • Peak anaerobic power - the highest mechanical power generated during any 3-5 second interval of the test. Findings:………………….. • Relative anaerobic power – is determined by dividing peak power by body mass. Findings:…………………. • Total work / Anaerobic capacity - is the total amount of work accomplished over a 30-second bout. Findings:………………. • Anaerobic fatigue - is the percentage decline in power compared with the peak power output. Findings:……………………

  24. Conclusion • What have we learnt from this lab?

  25. References • Fox, E.L., Bowers, R.W., & Foss, M.L. (1988). The physiological basis of physical education and athletics. (4th ed.). U.S.A: WCB publishers. • Littlemore, K., & Pridmore, J. (1997). Physical education. (2nd ed.). Australia: Nelson. • Marieb, E.N. (2003). Essentials of human anatomy & physiology. (7th ed.). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings. • Marieb, E.N. (2001). Human anatomy & physiology. (5th ed.). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings. • Scheil, J. & Leelarthaepin, B. (1990). Physical Fitness and Assessment: In Exercise and sport science. Matraville: Leelar Biomediscience Services. • Smyth, D., Brown, H., Gervasoni, R., Judge, W., McCallum, C., Pritchard, R. et al. (2000). Live it up 2. Queensland: Wiley and Sons. • Wilmore, J.H., Costill, D.L., & Kenney, W.L. (2009). Physiology of sport and exercise. (4th ed.). Champaign: Human Kinetics. • Wright, P. (1997). Inside & Out: A health and physical education textbook. (2nd ed.). Queensland: Jacaranda Wiley Ltd. • Youtube. (2008). • All images have been obtained from Google Images.