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Exploring North America.

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Exploring North America

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exploring north america
Exploring North America
  • Britain: got a late start b/c of War of the Roses and Tudor issues. Walter Raleigh went during reign of Elizabeth I (lost colony of Roanoke, and Seadogs to steal Spanish $$) Jamestown founded 1607, Plymouth 1620. British colonies founded for econ/religious reasons, not treasure/conquest.
  • France: Sent Jacques Cartier to search for NW Passage- didn’t settle till later. Fur trade base of econ rather than agriculture (too cold- Calvinists not allowed to go) Royal colonies, but king not very involved
  • Dutch: Not into big settlements. Bought Manhattan from Indians and set up New Amsterdam, goes to English 1674.

Purpose of colonies is to help mother country. Colonies supposed to provide raw materials (fur, timber etc..) and a market for finished goods. Only allowed to trade with mother country.

Puts focus of newly created “global” econ on Europe.

relations with amerindians
Relations with Amerindians
  • North American population relatively small and localized. (semi-nomadic) Europeans generally displaced rather than conquered.
  • Native lifestyle dramatically changed with introduction of horses and guns (esp for plains Indians)
  • Socially- not much mixing of Euro/native- (indentured servitude and African Slavery) Europeans recreated social world they knew. More mobility- people came to colonies, worked hard, and did well
global exchanges
Global Exchanges
  • Sustained contact between East/West hemispheres had profound impact- Biologically and commercially.
  • World radically altered by global networks of exchange
  • For Europe- what they find in new world will bring improved diet, increased wealth, and global empires.
  • For the new world- mostly catastrophic

African slavery Introduced to European colonies by the Portuguese in Brazil.

Had never really been a part of European society- colonial slavery was unique in scope and scale. 60% of pop. Of Brazil slave, 90% of population of Caribbean.

columbian exchange
Columbian Exchange
  • Global diffusion of plants and animals (hemispheres had been out of touch for millennium)
  • From Americas (West)
  • Beans, squash, tomato, sweet potato, peanuts, chilies, chocolate, corn, potato, avocado, pineapple
  • From Euro/Asia (East) Wheat, Rice, sugar, olives, grapes, coconuts, bananas, horse, cow, citrus, melon, sheep, goat, rabbit, rat.
  • And disease….Smallpox, typhus, measles, deadliest for natives. America did give Euro Syphilis and Malaria. But food improvements increased pop. With time
economic crisis realignment
Economic Crisis/Realignment
  • Massive influx of silver to Spain created high inflation (2% a year) Prices doubled in 50 years, quadrupled in 100.
  • Add that to wars of religion and you have serious econ problems
  • Population of Europe grew from 1450-1650, the dropped from 1650-1750.
  • Cities continued to see growth, farmers lost land
social changes
Social Changes

Peasants still the largest segment of the population- but not AS likely to be farming/rural.

effects of econ war on social class
Effects of Econ/War on Social Class
  • A lot of change during this age…..
  • Nobility was losing power to kings. Gentry/middle class (called Bourgeoisie in France) growing in power prestige.
  • Artisans losing influence to joint stock co, peasants losing land to enclosure/inflation. Times hard for them- lots of minor peasant uprisings.
  • Demographic movement from country to cities

Reformation led to need for better educated clergy. Growing commerce led to need for literate clerks- and lawyers. Growing empires needed educated bureaucrats

All this created more schools, and better opportunities- keys for social advancement. (at least for men)

family life and status of women
Family Life and Status of Women
  • 1/5- ¼ of children born didn’t survive to grow up. Childbirth the leading killer of women- 1 in 10 births fatal for mother. Average lifespan for men 27, for women 25. Husband head of the house- wife his “helper
  • Bloodletting still common treatment

for illness.

  • During bad econ times people limited the

# of children- married later.

  • Sensuality characteristic of the era- voluptuous women, muscular men.
  • Homosexuality mentioned in literature, prostitutes common.
witch hunting
Witch Hunting
  • Had always existed. 1550-1648 the last great “burst” 100,000 arrest, 60,000 executed (mostly women)
  • Linked to heresy- a result of economic problems (scapegoating)
  • Almost as if they are getting it out of their system as they move towards scientific revolution
  • Women considered “weaker” then men, more prone to temptation- they represented 80% of victims. Generally unmarried (esp. unmarried and in middle age- independent women automatically suspicious.) Midwives most common target.
regional economic and social variation
Regional Economic and Social Variation
  • 1550-1648 balance of economic power changed. Southern Europe’s dominance declines- replaced by Northwest. (Mediterranean trade down- Atlantic up)
  • Spain starts hurting- not commercial based- and commerce is what’s growing.
  • Economic changes will be as impactful as ideas of Renaissance/Reformation in changing lives. A transformation of way things are done is beginning
  • Eastern Europe- still feudal agricultural system. Nobles benefitted from changes, Peasants did not.
art and literature
Art and Literature

Renaissance art was an explosion of new ideas- which shifted into new area/forms as time period continued

art mannerism
Art: Mannerism
  • Reaction to Renaissance art. During 1520-30s artists deliberately distorted renaissance principles (like perspective- mannerists like to elongate) to convey a message- often of stress (anxiety/suffering) or escape from reality.
  • El Greco: used odd color and effects to convey message
  • Concept was that high renaissance had taken art to “perfection”- couldn’t be improved, so it went in a new direction.
  • Liked unnatural colors and shapes
  • Tintoretto: Venetian. Used twisted poses and compression of shape
  • El Greco- worked in Spain- shows their moment of power
  • Originated in Italian states around 1600- (named for baroque pearls). Popular in RC territories
  • Meant to evoke passion and mystery as opposed to harmony. Used grandeur (not simplicity) dramatic color and shading- energetic figures
  • Peter Paul Rubens
  • Artemisi Genti’leschi
  • Associated with the Church and counter reformation- sought to overwhelm the viewers- create a dramatic experience.
  • Popular with absolutist kings as well church
  • Caravaggio
  • Diego Velasquez
architecture sculpture
  • Again, trying to create a sense of grandeur. Massive interiors of palaces and popes filled with sculptures and spirit- larger than life.
  • Gian Lorenzo Bernini- finished St. Peters. The “throne of St. peter” seems to hover in the air surrounded by clouds and angels
  • Baroque architecture the style of the great palaces- Versailles, Schoenbrunn, the Hermitage
  • Bernini also did the “Ecstasy of St. Theresa” and fountains all over Rome