The Birth of Dadaism Because of the war, many artists, intellectuals and writers, especially those from France and Germany, moved to Switzerland. Instead of being relieved that they had escaped, the artists, intellectuals, and writers were furious with the modern society. They decided to show their protest through artistic medium. This art movement was a protest, but at the same time it managed to be enjoyable and amusing. It was sarcastic, colorful, quirky, and silly. However, each Dada artist was very serious about his work. Zurich, Switzerland During WWI 1916-1922
Dada Composers Musicians who labeled themselves as Dadaists were difficult to find for several reasons: • The movement incorporated the music of composers with very different styles • None of whom was directly involved in the Dada movement • Composers and musicians were extremely reluctant to identify themselves with a particular artistic movement • The Dada movement only seemed to attract visual artists and writers, and no dancers and musicians. There was a limited number of musicians who did identify themselves with or were associated with the Dadaist movement. • Hans Heusser, a Swiss Composer • Albert Savinio, "disharmonious"
Main Representatives of Dadaism • Hans Arp • Marcel Duchamp • Francis Picabia • Hugo Ball • Max Ernst • RaoulHausmann • Man Ray • John Heartfield • Marcel Janco • Kurt Schwitters • Sophie Taeuber-Arp Max Ernst - 1922. A Friends' Reunion/Au Rendez-vous des amis.
Hugo Ball1886-1927German Author, poet, leading Dada Artist First Dada Manifesto July 14, 1916 "An International word. Just a word, and the word a movement. Very easy to understand. Quite terribly simple. To make of it an artistic tendency must mean that one is anticipating complications. Dada psychology, dada Germany cum indigestion and fog paroxysm, dada literature, dada bourgeoisie, and yourselves, honoured poets, who are always writing with words but never writing the word itself, who are always writing around the actual point. Dada world war without end, dada revolution without beginning, dada, you friends and also-poets, esteemed sirs, manufacturers, and evangelists. Dada Tzara, dada Huelsenbeck, dada m'dada, dada m'dada dada mhm, dada dera dada, dada Hue, dada Tza."
Hugo Ball’s Manifesto’s 3 Main Points • Dada is international in perspective and seeks to bridge differences • Dada is antagonistic toward established society in the modern avant-garde, Bohemian tradition of the épater-le-bourgeios posture • Dada is a new tendency in art that seeks to change conventional attitudes and practices in aesthetics, society, and morality."
Hans Arp (Jean Arp)1886-1966German-French, or Alsatian sculptor, painter, poet and abstract artist Arrangement according to Laws of Chance (Collage with Squares) (1916-17)
Max Ernst1891-1976German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet He created collages instead of other formats because he believed that “…paintings require too much time to construct.”
L'elephantcelebes (1921) AquisSubmersus (1919)
Marcel Duchamp1887-1968French Dadaist and Surrealist He submitted the piece under the name R. Mutt, presumably to hide his involvement with the piece because at the time he was a board member of the Society of Independent Artists. Readymade once was, 1917 -> R.M -> Mott Works (sanitary equipment factor) -> Mutt and Jeff (cartoon) Fountain (1917)
L.H.O.O.Q. The letters, when pronounced in French, form the sentence "Elle a chaud au cul", which translates to "She has a hot ass".
RaoulHausmann1886-1971Austrian artist and writer DerGeistUnsererZeit - Mechanischer Kopf (Mechanical Head [The Spirit of Our Age]) c. 1920 • ruler, pocket watch mechanism, typewriter, camera segments and a crocodile wallet • Philosopher George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel - "...this is a head whose "thoughts" are materially determined by objects literally fixed to it. • Hausmann has revealed a head that is penetrated and governed by brute external forces, which is an assumption that lies behind the European fascination with the portrait.”
Man Ray (Emmanuel Radnitzky) Noire et Blanche (1926) • Inspired by African Art • Worked with the black and white contrast between the alabaster painted face of Niki de Montparnasse and a black African mask 1890-1976American ArtistSignificant contributor to both the Dada andSurrealist MovementsBest known in the art world for hisavant-garde photography
Francis Picabia1879-1953French painter, poet, and typographist Hera (1929) Oil on Cardboard
Marcel Janco1895-1984Romanian-born Israeli painter and architect Untitled(1920-1929) • Property of a private Swedish Collection • Oil and Plaster on a canvas mounted on a panel
Kurt Schwitters1887-1948German Painter Das Undbild “The And-Picture” (1919) Dada, Constructivism, Surrealism, poetry, sound, painting, sculpture, graphic design, typography, installation art ; most famous for his collages : Merz Pictures
Bibliography • http://www.dadart.com/dadaism/dada/020-history-dada-movement.html • http://www-scf.usc.edu/~sniles/dadaism.htm • http://www.huntfor.com/arthistory/C20th/dadaism.htm • https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/16308/Arpcollage.jpg?version=1&modificationDate=1169336456000 • http://wpcontent.answcdn.com/wikipedia/en/thumb/2/2b/The_Elephant_Celebes.jpg/300px-The_Elephant_Celebes.jpg • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/e7/Aquis_Submersus.jpg • http://www.beatmuseum.org/duchamp/images/fountain.jpg • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/6/6e/Marcel_Duchamp_Mona_Lisa_LHOOQ.jpg • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/49/MechanicalHead-Hausmann.jpg • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/49/MechanicalHead-Hausmann.jpg • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/03/Picabia_Hera_2.JPG • http://images.artnet.com/artwork_images/117564/451908.jpg • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/fc/DasUndbild.jpg • http://www.site.uottawa.ca/~szpak/pub/nas/extras/wasistdada.jpg • http://www.abcgallery.com/E/ernst/ernst1.html • http://ny-image2.etsy.com/il_fullxfull.74355638.jpg