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Historic Look at IDEA. Evolving Issues and Practices. Sad U.S. History. Many people (children) with disabilities were abandoned, killed, ‘warehoused’ in deplorable, inhumane institutions. Education was not a consideration. Initial Programs.

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Historic look at idea

Historic Look at IDEA

Evolving Issues and Practices

Sad u s history
Sad U.S. History

  • Many people (children) with disabilities were abandoned, killed, ‘warehoused’ in deplorable, inhumane institutions.

  • Education was not a consideration

Initial programs
Initial Programs

  • The American Asylum for the Education and Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb (1817)

  • Maryland Institution for the Instruction of the Blind (1853) (became the Maryland School for the Blind in 1868)

  • Also started the Maryland School for the Colored Blind and Deaf in 1872

Music in special ed
Music in Special Ed.

  • Literature shows that:

    • Music was used to teach students with disabilities

    • Singing was used to improve speech, breathing, and articulation skills

    • Music was used in diagnosing hearing problems before the development of audiology equipment

    • Music was used with deaf and hard of hearing students

Early mid 1900s
Early-Mid 1900s

  • Early 1900s- Public Education for all typical children

  • By 1950s, as attitudes began to change, parents began organizing efforts to obtain funding for special schools for their children with special needs.

  • 1960s brought more enlightened thinking regarding ALL people with needs, such as poverty, mental illness, racial inequalities, etc.


Brown vs board of ed 1954
Brown vs. Board of Ed. (1954) special needs

  • School desegregation case

  • Integrating ed. settings

  • Separate is not equal

  • Beginning of the end for ALL exclusionary practices in schools

Eha ed of the handicapped act
EHA special needs: Ed. of the Handicapped Act

  • 1970

  • Expanded federal grant programs

  • Funded pilot studies for Special Ed.

  • Funds for development of University programs for special ed. Teacher training

Parc penn assoc of retarded citizens vs commonwealth
PARC special needs Penn. Assoc of Retarded Citizens vs. Commonwealth

  • 1971

  • Established right for a FAPE (Free, Appropriate Public Education) for students with mental retardation

  • Schools could not exclude students with MR

  • Due Process must be followed

  • Educate in less restrictive settings when possible

Mills vs bd of ed
Mills vs. Bd. Of Ed. special needs

  • 1972- expanded on PARC

  • Guaranteed Due Process include procedures relating to labeling, placement, and exclusionary stages of decision making

  • Schools had to fund Spec. Ed., even when funds were low

  • Protection for more than just MR

Sec 504 of rehabilitation act
Sec 504 of Rehabilitation Act special needs

  • 1973

  • Federal anti-discrimination law (civil rights)

  • No org. that receives federal funds can discriminate based on disability condition

  • Protects for alternate DX, such as medical illness, ADHD, behavior d/o, substance abuse

  • Did not guarantee equal participation (extra-curric), but equal opportunity.

Pl94 142 education for all handicapped children act
PL94-142 special needs Education for All Handicapped Children Act

  • 1975

  • Complete access to FAPE in the LRE (Least Restrictive Environment)

  • Later became IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1990) [PL101-476]

  • Revised and reauthorized in 1997, then became the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act 2004

Idea 6 principles
IDEA: 6 Principles special needs

  • Zero Reject(ion): FAPE for ALL!!!

  • Nondiscriminatory evaluation for eligibility & need for services

  • LRE (Least Restrictive Environment)

  • IEP (Individualized Education Plan): services must be individualized

  • Parents’ right to full involvement in decisions, including the education plan

  • Due Process guarantee

Some key idea amendments
Some Key IDEA Amendments special needs

  • Pre-school children (3-5)

  • Early Intervention (under 3)

  • Handicap replaced by Disability; Person 1st language

  • Autism & TBI included

  • Assistive Technology

Current idea issues
Current IDEA issues special needs

  • Higher expectations for students

  • Increase access to regular ed.

  • Use of research-based teaching interventions mandated

  • Strengthen parent role

  • Redefine Spec. Ed. as a service for eligible students, rather than a destination for their ed.

  • Support professional development for all school personnel

Ada americans with disabilities act
ADA special needs: Americans with Disabilities Act

  • 1990

  • Most sweeping antidiscrimination disability legislation to date

  • Extends civil rights and nondiscrimination protection to most public and private programs, services, and agencies.

Nclb no child left behind act
NCLB: No Child Left Behind Act special needs

  • 2001

  • PL 107-110

    -- Increased accountability

    • carrot or whip?

      --More choices for parents & students

      --Greater $$ flexibility for states, school districts, and schools

      --Stronger emphasis on reading