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Design Techniques

Design Techniques

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Design Techniques

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  1. Design Techniques Anders Mørch TOOL 5100, 30.03.06

  2. Outline • Multiple design techniques • Three in particular • Empirical-based design • Participatory design • Evolutionary design

  3. Methods • In the same way we have methods for evaluation we have methods for design • I have chosen to put different approaches to design under the umbrella of “design techniques” and to focus on them in detail • There are other ways to approach design, some of them more general, others specific

  4. Design techniques • Scenario-based design • Empirical-based design • Participatory design • Theory-based design • Evolutionary design • The techniques are partially overlapping and are often used in combination

  5. Scenario-based design • Simulation of future (envisioned) use • A textual description with (or without) screen mock ups depicting an imagined sequence of interactions with a simulated system • The context of the setting should be included in the description, so that the scenario is meaningful to as many as possible (see PD) • Two types • Generic (domain independent) • Specific (domain specific)

  6. Empirical-based design (also called iterative design, prototyping) • Suggest answers to empirical questions • Involving real users in order to support their needs, not the needs of system developers, • Iterations of system building and evaluation with users • Evaluation is often done in “usability labs”, but can also be done using other means (see PD)

  7. Participatory design • User participation in the early phases of system development • Users are considered equal partners with developers • Often referred to as “Scandinavian approach” to system development (democratic design) • Understand what goes on at the workplace and in the interaction between workers • Technology is “mediating artefact” alongside other artefacts such as profession-oriented languages • Mutual learning and use of low-fidelity prototyping techniques (see SBD & EBD)

  8. Theory-based design • Using theories to inform and ground a design • A theory is sometimes used to create a conceptual model, which is then used to create a design • Theories can also be used to create design principles • Originated in HCI (user interface design) and have been successfully used in CSCW and CSCL • Taken all the way, the theory is “built into” the user interface to express one or more ideas, e.g. : • Janus (reflection-in-action) • Coordinator (speech act theory) • FLE (progressive inquiry)

  9. Evolutionary design • Develop a new system based on an existing one • This is often the default approach for many developers, even without being aware of it, because many developers have a repertoire of tools to build from • Start from something that already works and available to low level inspection and code reuse • Find out what can be improved and add the improvements to the existing working system • Can be used in different ways • within one system (e.g. extending an open source system); • from one generation of system to another (e.g. product families); • and from one technology to another (mock up to computer display)

  10. Examples • 1) Empirical based design and evolutionary design (DoCTA case) • 2) Participatory design and evolutionary design (Statoil case)