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Locality in Coding Theory

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  1. Locality in Coding Theory MadhuSudan Harvard University Wola'16: Locality in Coding Theory

  2. Locality LOCALity • Local “Influenced by small neighborhood” • Two views in literature: • Focus on “small” • Leads to greater efficiency in algorithms, but not necessarily structure. • Focus on “neighborhood” • Suitable in distributed computing. • More structure in algorithms • Input to algorithm = architecture for solution • Coding Theory: Focus on “small” Wola'16: Locality in Coding Theory

  3. Locality in Coding Theory • Historical accident? • Classical concepts: • Local decodability • Local list-decodability • Local testability • Striking recent developments: • Modern Concepts: • Local Reconstruction Codes • Some constructions Wola'16: Locality in Coding Theory

  4. (Classical) Challenge of Coding Theory • Protect data from (inevitable) error • Question: Does ability to protect go with size • Shannon’s surprising answer (surprise in 1948): YES • Cost = ? Recovery time with size • Current options to store massive data: • Break data into small chunks. • Good recovery time but lose twice in reliability: (1) Reliability per chunk; (2) Union bound on chunks. • Keep data in one big chunk: • Good reliability, but poor recovery time. • Locality (if achievable): Best of both worlds. • Recovery time = sublinear? Wola'16: Locality in Coding Theory

  5. Basic Notions: • Code: ; • Testing: Given ; s.t. ? • Decoding: Given find s.t. • Locality: Do above in sublinear time! • Local testing: • Make few queries to ; • Reject with prob. • Locally Decodable (correctible) Code: • Given make few queries to ; output • Local Reconstruction Codes: • LDCs for ; (even simpler: erasures only!) Wola'16: Locality in Coding Theory

  6. Progress Report: LTCs • Motivations: • Entirely mathematical? • PCPs … XOR lemma, extremal graphs, … • Initial belief:Locality as ; • Disproved many times: • [GS,BGHSV,BS,Dinur,Meir]: with • Semi-recent belief: Locality as • Disproved fewer times: • [Viderman’11]: and , . • [Kopparty,Meir,Ron-Zewi,Saraf’16]: achievable for “free” • Practical use? Wola'16: Locality in Coding Theory

  7. Progress Report: LDCs • Motivations: • Mathematical … + (in hindsight) Practical? • Initial belief:Locality as ; • Disproved (2006-9) [Yekhanin, Raghavendra, Efremenko]: • Semi-recent belief: Locality as • Disproved “many times” (2010-2016): • [Kopparty,Meir,Ron-Zewi,Saraf’16]: achievable for “free” • Practical Use?! Wola'16: Locality in Coding Theory

  8. Local Reconstruction Codes • Practically motivated notion: • Fix small corruption quickly (locally). • Remain resilient to many errors. • -LRC [Gopalan-Huang-Simitci-Yekhanin]: • Code of distance s.t.single symbol erasure can be recovered -locally. • Symbol of message? (Weak Defn.) • Symbol of codeword? (Strong Defn.) Wola'16: Locality in Coding Theory

  9. An Easy Construction Standard ECC (systematic) Reed-Solomon Satisfies weak defn. Can save if it is of all Wola'16: Locality in Coding Theory

  10. A limiting result • Recall Singleton Bound: • Project Code to first coordinates. • Pigeonhole Principle s.t. • Simple -LRC weaker by • Thm [GHSY]: This is necessary (up to ) • Find locations of rank greedily. • Project to these coordinates+ PHP. Wola'16: Locality in Coding Theory

  11. A “state-of-art” construction • [Tamo-Barg]: (Strong Defn.) • Code = Subcode of Reed-Solomon Code: • Work with where divides ; • () • Local groups:; points • ; deg. ! Wola'16: Locality in Coding Theory

  12. Conclusions • Locality in coding theory • Diverse collection of notions • New problems and solutions (and techniques). • Diverse applications. • Many open questions! Wola'16: Locality in Coding Theory