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Where are the elements. How did they form?. Air. Earth. Water. Living Things. Air. SiO 2 Al 2 O 3 Fe 2 O 3. Radioactive decay of Uranium and Radon. N 2 & O 2. Earth. Water. Living Things. H 2 O. Radioactive decay of Radium. Living Things.

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where are the elements

Where are the elements

How did they form?

slide2

Air

Earth

Water

Living Things

slide4

Air

SiO2Al2O3Fe2O3

Radioactive decay of Uranium and Radon

N2 & O2

Earth

Water

Living Things

H2O

Radioactive decay of Radium.

slide8
All nitrates (NO3-), chlorates (ClO3-) and perchlorates (ClO4-) are soluble. Most sulfates (SO42-) are soluble.

Calcium sulfate is slightly soluble.

slide17

Oxygen

107

1100

10,000,000 1,000,000,000

X

107

slide20

$1000

$1000

3-

2-

1-

0-

-1-

-2-

-3-

103

$1000

$100

$10

$1

$.10

102

$.01

101

$100

10-1

100

10-2

$10

$.01

$1

$.10

slide25

Do the abundance of the elements change? In other words, do elements change into other elements?

slide28

Are elements formed in the caldron of a volcano?

Are elements changed to other elements in the intense heat of a volcano (about 1,000oC for lava and 2,000oC for inside volcano)?

slide29

Elements may separate from other elements or combine with certain elements. There is not enough heat in a volcano to change an element into another element.

Here is silicon and oxygen with trace amount of metals (darkening) to form a mineral called…

slide30

about 7,000oC

57million psi

slide39

SUN EARTH

Mass (Earths) 332,000 1

Volume (Earths) 1,300,000 1

Diameter 870,000 miles 8,000 miles

Mass conversion rate (106 kg/s)

Central temperature: 16 million deg K 7,000 est.

Central density: 162 g/cm3 12g/cm3

slide45

For stars over 10 times heavier than the Sun

56Fe  13 4He +4n

13 4He  26e- +26p+ + 26n +4n

26n

slide46

The core with a mass of ½ million Earths shrinks from 1000 km (600 mi.) to about 50 km (31 mi.) in 1 second.

Implosion velocity reaches 170 million mph...about 1/4 c or 50,000 miles per second.

slide49

Helium

Carbon

Neon

Oxygen

Silicon

The outward moving matter is moving so fast that it compresses and heats whatever it collides with to temperatures of 1010 to 1011 K... much hotter than anything we have encountered in our studies of stars so far.

slide52

Such enormously high temperatures generates nuclear reactions. Below the neon shell source, the oxygen and silicon is converted to iron plus less massive nuclei such as argon, calcium, potassium, titanium, copper, and zinc. By the time the blast reaches the outer shell sources, the collisions are less violent and the temperatures reached are too low for nuclear reactions.

slide53

neutrons

neutrons

  • Thus, nuclear reactions account only for elements less massive than iron. What about the rest of the periodical table? Where do the other elements with more than 25 or so protons in their nuclei come from?
  • The source of neutrons for neutron capture is the outer half of the collapsing neutron core that was ejected.
  • The environment for neutron capture only last a short time. Consequently, not many of the heavy elements arecreated.
slide56

Supernovas often become black holes. The remaining core of neutrons with about the weight of 3 to 15 of our suns has gravity so strong that light cannot exit.

There is one black hole in our galaxy that has the mass of 2.6 million Suns.

where did hydrogen come from
Where did hydrogen come from?
  • It all depends on how good your math is.
  • Test: How far do you travel in 2 ½ hours, if you are going 120 mph?
  • If you left home at noon and traveled 60 mph, how long would it take you to drive 300 miles?
slide60

120 mph

2:30 pm

120 mi

1:30pm

85 mi

1:30pm

170 mph

120 mph

120 mi

170 mph

1:00pm

170 mi

12:30pm

120 mph

60 mi

Noon

slide61

Plane

Train

Doppler effect

slide74

300,000 years

3,000 deg radiation

slide75

H>He

He>C

C>O,Ne,Mg

Ne>Mg

O> Si,S

The outward moving matter is moving so fast that it compresses and heats whatever it collides with to temperatures of 1010 to 1011 K... much hotter than anything we have encountered in our studies of stars so far.

slide77

More light elements fused as neutrons compresses layers that reach temperatures up to 100 billion degrees. Heavy elements form as nuclei absorb neutrons.