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Cognitive Development In Infancy

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  1. Cognitive Development In Infancy Chapter 5 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  2. Piaget’s Theory of Infant Development Piaget stressed that children actively construct their own cognitive worlds; information is not just poured into their minds Cognitive processes The sensorimotor stage Evaluating Piaget’s sensorimotor stage © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  3. Cognitive Processes • Schemes: Actions or mental representations that organize knowledge • Behavioral scheme • Mental scheme • Assimilation: Using existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences • Accommodation: Adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  4. Behavioral Schemes

  5. Cognitive Processes • Organization: Grouping of isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher-order system • Equilibration and stages of development • Equilibration: Mechanism by which children shift from one stage of thought to the next • Individuals go through four stages of development • Cognition is qualitatively different from one stage to another © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  6. Figure 5.1 - Piaget’s Six Substages of Sensorimotor Development © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  7. The Sensorimotor Stage • Lasts from birth to about 2 years of age • Construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences • Substages • Simple reflexes • First habits and primary circular reactions • Secondary circular reactions • Coordination of secondary circular reactions • Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity • Internalization of schemes © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  8. Secondary Circular Reaction

  9. The Sensorimotor Stage • Object permanence: Understanding that objects and events continue to exist: • When they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  10. The Sensorimotor Stage © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  11. Conditioning • Operant conditioning • Conditioning: infants will suck faster on a nipple when the sucking behavior is followed by a visual display, music, or a human voice (Rovee-Collier, 1987, 2007). • Habituation - Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus • Dishabituation - Increase in responsiveness after a change in stimulation © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  12. Attention • Attention: By 4 months, infants can selectively attend to an object. • Joint attention: Occurs when two or more individuals focus on the same object or event • Requires: • Ability to track another’s behavior • One person’s directing another’s attention • Reciprocal interaction • Emerges toward the end of the first year • “gaze following” occurs at 10-11 months • By 12 mos ,infants begin to direct adults attention

  13. Memory • Retention of information over time • Implicit memory: Without conscious recollection • Memories of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically • Explicit memory: Conscious remembering of facts and experiences • Most researchers find that this does not emerge until the second half of the first year • Childhood amnesia • May occur because the frontal lobes and hippocampus are still developing. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  14. Imitation • Meltzoff (2007) argued that infant imitations involve flexibility and adaptability • Deferred imitation: Occurs after a delay of hours or days • Piaget suggested that deferred imitation doesn’t occur until 18 months. • Meltzoff’s research suggested that it occurs as early as 9 months © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  15. Concept Formation and Categorization Perceptual Categorization • Concepts: Cognitive groupings of similar objects, events, people, or ideas • Perceptual categorization • Occurs first and involves grouping objects based on their appearance • Conceptual categorization • Grouping objects based on concepts such as “indoor” or “vehicle” © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  16. Measures of Infant Development • Current version of Gessell’s (1934) test establishes a DQ • Bayley Scales of Infant Development: assess infant behavior and predict later development • Current version has three components: • Mental scale • Motor scale • Infant behavior profile • Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence evaluates an infant’s ability to process information © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  17. Predicting Intelligence • Tests for infants contain items related to perceptual-motor development • Include measures of social interaction • The increasingly popular Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence is (1992) focuses on the infant's ability to process information in such ways as encoding the attributes of objects, detecting similarities and differences between objects, forming mental representations, and retrieving these representations. • Correlates with measures of intelligence in older children. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  18. Defining Language • Language: Form of communication • Spoken, written, or signed • Based on a system of symbols • Consists of the words used by a community and the rules for varying and combining them • Infinite generativity: Ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using: • Finite set of words and rules © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  19. Figure 5.12 - The Rule Systems of Language © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  20. Syntax

  21. How Language Develops • Recognizing language sounds • Babbling and other vocalizations • Crying • Cooing • Babbling • Gestures emerge between 7 and 15 months • Showing and pointing – first point without checking if the adult is following gaze, and then looking back and forth between the object and adult. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  22. How Language Develops • First words • Receptive vocabulary considerably exceeds spoken vocabulary • As early as 5 months of age, infants recognize their name when someone says it. • Vocabulary spurt • Overextension - Tendency to apply a word to objects that are inappropriate for the word’s meaning • Underextension - Tendency to apply a word too narrowly © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  23. Figure 5.14 - Variation in Language Milestones © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  24. How Language Develops • Two-word utterances • To convey meaning child relies on: • Gesture, tone, and context • Telegraphic speech: Use of short and precise words without grammatical markers: • Articles, auxiliary verbs, and other connectives © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  25. Biological Influences • Language acquisition device (LAD): Chomsky’s term that describes a biological endowment enabling the child to: • Detect the features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax, and semantics © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  26. Figure 5.16 - Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area • Regions involved in language • Broca’s area: In the brain’s left frontal lobe that is involved in speech production • Wernicke’s area: In the brain’s left hemisphere that is involved in language comprehension © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  27. Environmental Influences • Behaviorist view of language learning has several problems • Interaction view - Children learn language in specific contexts • Vocabulary development is linked to: • Family’s socioeconomic status • Type of talk that parents direct to their children • Child-directed speech: Higher pitch than normal, with simple words and sentences © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

  28. Environmental Influences • Three strategies to enhance child’s acquisition of language: • Recasting: rephrasing something the child has said • Expanding: restating, in a linguistically sophisticated form, what a child has said. • Labeling: is restating, in a linguistically sophisticated form, what a child has said. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.