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Unit 10 Test. Types of Questions: True or False Multiple Choice Matching patterns of evolution & examples Matching types of structures & examples Short Answers (natural selection and examples, evolution and examples).

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unit 10 test

Unit 10 Test

Types of Questions:

True or False

Multiple Choice

Matching patterns of evolution & examples

Matching types of structures & examples

Short Answers (natural selection and examples, evolution and examples)

slide2

1. What is the difference between evolution and biological evolution? Give an example of each.

  • EVOLUTION - orderly succession of changes, can happen to living and nonliving  Example: iPods, computers, cars
  • BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION - changes in a species' genes over many generationsExample: bacteria, finches, iguanas, tortoises
  • Difference: Biological evolution is genetic changes. "Evolution" can be used in different contexts and to describe the changes occurring in nonliving things

2. Who was Jean Baptiste de Lamark? What were his hypotheses?

  • French, studied natural history, 1744 – 1829HYPOTHESES:
    • species changed over time (true)
    • similar species descended from the same ancestor (true)
    • new organisms are modified descendants of newer species (true)
    • acquired traits can be passed down to offspring (false)
slide3

3. Who was Charles Darwin? Where did he go on his voyage on the HMS Beagle?

  • English, studied natural history, 1809 - 1882
  • 5 year voyage, S. America, Galapagos, Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania

4. What were Darwin’s 2 theories as explained in his book, The Origin of Species?

  • Descent with modification - over time, species make small changes, but still produce offspring similar to themselves
    • After many generations, small changes build up and may create very noticeable
  • Modification by Natural Selection - organisms that are best suited (adapted) to their environment will be the most successful, reproduce and pass on their successful genes to their offspring
slide4

5. What is “fitness”?

  • Fitness is a measurement of an organisms' success at reproduction.
  • To have "fitness", the organism must be able to reproduce successfully as well as to produce offspring that are able to survive and reproduce as well.
  • It is often measured by the "grandchildren" method.
    • If the organisms' genes are successful enough to be passed down for several generation, the organism is "fit”.
slide5

6. Explain the process of natural selection.

  • Within a species, there is usually a lot of variation between the individual organisms (the organisms are not identical).
  • Some will have traits/adaptations that make them either more (or less) successful than the other individual organisms of the species.
  • The organisms with the genetic traits that are best suited to their environment will be successful and get the most resources
    • These successful organisms will most likely have a better opportunity to reproduce.
    • If the organism reproduces, it may pass on the genes for the successful traits, increasing the number of organisms with the successful trait.
  • The organisms that are not as successful will not reproduce as much and the number of organisms with those traits will be reduced
  • Over many generations, the more successful traits will overpopulate the less successful traits, changing the genes of the species.
    • This could possibly lead to a new species
slide6

7. What is a fossil?

  • Preserved remains or traces of animals, plants and other organisms from the remote past
  • Typically found in layers of rock, in amber, in ice, etc

8. What is the condition of most fossils?

  • partiallow quality not containing DNA

9. What is a mass extinction? How many have there been in Earth’s history? What are the suggested causes?

  • widespread and rapid decrease of the number of species on Earth
    • At least 60% of species extinct, MANY species disappearing within a short period of time
  • Five have been recorded  
  • CAUSES - drastic enviro changes, meteors, volcanoes, drop in temp
slide7

10. How can scientists use DNA and protein sequences to show an evolutionary relationship?

  • DNA or PROTEIN SEQUENCE– compares sequence of DNA or amino acids in the protein
    • If the sequence is similar, the two species are probably closely related

11. How does the development of embryos show an evolutionary relationship?

  • EMBRYO- if embryos develop in the same way, most likely developing same internal structures and closely related

12. What are homologous structures? Give some examples.

  • Structures that originated from a shared ancestor
  • Mayhave different functions and may look very different on the outside, but similar in internal structure & development
  • EX - bird beaks, forelimbs of humanand bat
slide9

13. What are analogous structures? Give some examples.

  • Similar looking structures that originated from different ancestors
  • Structures that may have similar functions or look similar, but very different in anatomy and development
  • EX – wings of bird, bat, and butterfly, shark and dolphin body shape and coloration, snake and worm, porcupine quill and sea urchin spines

14. What are vestigial structures? Give some examples.

  • Structures once used in an ancestor, but not useful tomodern organism
  • The organism still has genes for the structure, so the structure is formed but is not functional
  • EX- human tailbone and appendix, snake pelvis, whale pelvis, eyes in cave-dwelling organisms
slide12

14. What is coevolution? Give some examples.

  • Mutual evolution between two species, the two closely related species affect each other’s evolution
  • EX - predator & prey, anteater & ant, bat/pollinator & flower

15. What is convergent evolution? Give some examples.

  • Unrelated organisms starting to look similar due to living in the same or similar environment,
  • Unrelated species independently evolve to have similar traits (lead to analogous structures)
  • EX – bat, bird & butterfly (all have wings); shark and dolphin (similar coloration, body shape, fins)

16. What is divergent evolution? Give some examples.

  • Related species looking less similar as they adapt to living in different environments
  • Related species evolving in different pathways causing different appearances (leads to homologous structures)
  • EX – differentspecies of birds, dogs, bat andgiraffe, bat andhuman
slide13

18. What is the difference between natural selection and artificial selection?

  • Natural selection - best phenotypic traits are determined by the environment, nature selecting the fitness of the organism
  • Artificial selection - best phenotypic traits are determined by humans, humans breed two organisms with the best phenotypes (determined by humans, not the enviro)

19. What type of evolutionary pattern would lead to homologous structures?

  • Divergent!
  • Homologous structures are similar in development, but may look very different on the outside. This typically happens because the two species are evolving in different pathways.

20. What type of evolutionary pattern would lead to analogous structures?

  • Convergent!
  • Analogous structures look similar on the outside and may even do the same function, but are very different in internal structure and development. This typically happens because the two species live in similar environments and have acquired the same beneficial traits.