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Ecological Fitness. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Birds. Ecological Fitness. How well an organism has adaptations well suited to its environment An ecologically fit organism has a survival advantage . Adaptation.

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ecological fitness

Ecological Fitness

Amphibians, Reptiles, and Birds

ecological fitness1
Ecological Fitness
  • How well an organism has adaptations well suited to its environment
  • An ecologically fit organism has a survival advantage
adaptation
Adaptation
  • An inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s ability to survive an environmental change
  • Examples: ability to grow a winter coat
  • Important concept: an organism cannot acquire an adaptation during its lifetime
  • An adaptation is coded into an organism’s DNA and cannot be changed
the migration onto land
The migration onto land
  • The first vertebrates were fish
  • Water is a nice environment
  • There is no weather, water temperature is fairly stable, no need to maintain body temperature
  • No issue with drying out
  • No need to protect reproductive cells, egg and sperm
  • No need to protect embryo
thermoregulation
Thermoregulation
  • Life on land requires adaptation to the wide swings in ambient temperature
  • Ectothermy: the body temperature of the organism is the same as its environment
  • Endothermy: the organism maintains a constant body temperature
a mphibians
Amphibians
  • Live part of their life in the water, usually a juvenile stage
  • Have gills while in the water
  • Live on land as adults
  • Have lungs or not
  • All absorb oxygen from the air through their skin
  • Require that their skin stays moist, mucus
amphibians continued
Amphibians continued
  • 3 chambered heart, oxygen rich blood and oxygen poor blood mix
  • Many lay their eggs in the water
  • Cloaca used for excretion and reproduction
  • Examples: salamanders , frogs and toads
  • Ectothermic
  • Must hibernate during the winter
reptiles
Reptiles
  • Permanent land residents
  • Must have adaptations against drying out, scales
  • Eggs must have some protection, leathery shell
  • Ectothermic
  • 3 chambered heart, usually
  • Cloaca for excretion and reproduction
reptiles continued
Reptiles continued
  • Cannot live in cold climates
  • In temperate zones, reptiles hibernate for the winter, usually underground
birds
Birds
  • Related to bird hipped dinosaurs such as T rex
  • Endothermic, so can live in cold environments
  • Eat a variety of items that are available during the winter or migrate
  • Brood their young, eggs have hard shells allowing mother to sit on eggs
  • Involved parents allows more survival from less eggs
birds and flight
Birds and Flight
  • 4 chambered heart
  • Light bones
  • Feathers
  • One way air flow through lungs
  • Flying expands available food sources and decreases predation