With emphasis given to the place and position of Odysseus and his epic poem. An Introduction to the Trojan War. SETTING: GREECE 1250 B.C. Review: Myths.
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A myth is an explanation of something in nature; how everything in the universe came into existence (men, animals, trees, the sun, earthquakes, etc) and all that happens
Myths are early science but also entertainment
Greek mythology is made up of stories about gods and goddesses
The universe created the gods who lived on Mount Olympus.
Zeus, god of the sky
Poseidon, god of the sea
Hades, god of the underworld
Took place between approximately 1260-1250 B.C.
Archaeological remains provide evidence that there was a war but cause unknown.
Scholars believe the war began over control of the trade route between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea between the Trojans and Greeks.
Ancient mythology states that the war began over a single woman, Helen, queen of Sparta.
All gods on Olympus invited except ERIS, the evil goddess of Discord
Apple inscribed with “For The Fairest”
Paris, Prince of Troy, will be the judge
Hera - POWER
Athena - WISDOM
Aphrodite – HOT BODY, BEAUTIFUL WOMAN
Paris chooses Aphrodite
Helen- beautiful daughter of King of Sparta (in Greece)
Helen has many suitors- they swear oath to protect Helen and her new husband
Father chooses Menelaus- makes him King of Sparta also
Paris abducts Helen
1000 ships, including Odysseus & Achilles, leave for Troy
Ares, god of war
Apollo, sun god
Artemis, goddess of the hunt
Ten years of
Greeks build a gigantic hollow horse and hide inside
Sinon chosen to tell a tale of the Greeks leaving
Priest Laocoon tried to warn Trojans “I fear the Greeks even when they bear gifts”
Poseidon sent serpent to kill Laocoon
Trojans thought they had won
Sinon tells them horse is an offering to Athena - big so Trojans wouldn’t take it
Trojans fall for it and drag horse into city gates to temple of Athena
In middle of night Greeks leave horse and attack
Troy is in flames before Trojans know what has happened
King of Troy dead
Women and Children become slaves
Helen is returned to Menelaus
Trojans were slaughtered and city sacked and burned
Greeks violated Trojan temples
Greeks did not offer sacrifices to the gods to thank them for their victory
Odysseus, creator of the Horse, will suffer the most
First written record of Greece
describes the events of 51 days during the last year of the war when Achilles kills Hector
Describes the 10-year journey of Odysseus as he tries to go home to Ithaca after the Trojan War
He and his men face monsters, giants, cannibals, temptation, and deathHomer and the Epic Poem
500 year gap between the actual war and when the story was written down in 725 BCE.
An epic is a story-poem about a great hero who performs daring deeds that require superhuman courage
Told orally, not written, recited from memory by minstrels (traveling entertainers)
In Greek epics the gods either help or hinder the hero, like in The Odyssey, Poseidon hinders Odysseus while Athena helps him
Using what you have learned in class, write a short tabloid-style story that highlights a character or event that is central to the Trojan War. Please pay attention to all standard writing conventions (i.e. spelling, capitalization, punctuation, etc.)
No, not that Paris
The King of Troy can’t seem to keep his boys in their chambers, as the impetuous and impulsive Paris, Prince of Troy, secreted himself off to Sparta for a Mediterranean jaunt. Hector, the busy-body older brother, followed “to keep him out of trouble.”
Hector’s best efforts failed, though, as he and his younger brother beat a hasty retreat to the war drums of 1000 Greek ships. Their misdeed: taking another man’s wife.
Helen, the princess of Sparta famed for her beauty and rumored to be an illegitimate child of Zeus, had been promised to the much older and battle-maimed Menelaus by her father. However, her tastes appear to favor the strength and vitality of youth, as she appeared to put up very little struggle while boarding the Trojan ship.
Mount Olympus presented a very divided front on the issue. The conservative block, led by Hera and Poseidon, demanded a swift and immediate return of the Spartan property. Meanwhile, the liberal faction of Apollo and Artemis expressed satisfaction with the choice. Zeus, who is rumored to be at an undisclosed location with the mortal Alcmene, refused to issue a statement.
When asked for her take on the story, Aphrodite, the goddess of love who recently received a prize of her own from Paris, exclaimed with delighted giggle, “Paris really is for lovers!”