U N I T 1 CLAUSES BASED ON GEROT
Clauses They are the higher units on the rank-scale and they are made up of lower rank units that perform different functions within them: Today, curiously, origami is practised all around the world
In fact, curiously, origami Acon Amod S PP AdvG NG is practised all around the world F P Acir VG::::::::::::: PP
They have predicator They do not have predicator TYPES OF CLAUSES MAJOR MINOR ALARMS GREETINGS CALLS EXCLAMATIONS CONTINUITY
Willy! Mom! EXAMPLES OF MINOR CLAUSES Fire! Help! Hello!! Good Morning!! Oh, Lord! My dear! Wow! (they arrived last night) – Uhuh.
EXAMPLES OF MAJOR CLAUSES Shut up! She will probably come. He was willing to stay as he liked it so much there He gave us a poor excuse
MAJOR CLAUSES FINITE NON-FINITE IT HAS A NON-FINITE VERBAL GROUP IT HAS A FINITE VERBAL GROUP The kids were playing outside Finished the job, we went home
MAJOR CLAUSES Non-Ranking/Rankshifted Downranked/Embedded clauses Ranking clauses Clauses that function as clauses, i.e. that convey messages or extend messages Clauses that have been brought down to the lower rank of group/phrasesand are embedded in other clauses or in elements of other clauses as if they were a group or phrase. They do not convey messages or extend them, but are only part of them. • ranking independent • ranking dependent
RANKING CLAUSES INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT • They can stand alone. • They cannot stand alone. • They are always finite. • They may be F or NF • They pick up the mood of the independent clause • They choose their own mood. • They can be suppressed or moved around
RANKING CLAUSES • Independent clauses • Dependent clauses • Single clauses • A Clause in paratactic clause complex • The Main/Dominant clause in a hypotactic clause complex • The dependent/hypotactic clause in a hypotactic clause complex
RANKING CLAUSES • A paratactic clause complex Paratactic clause Paratactic clause • A hypotactic clause complex Dominant clause Hypotactic clause
E X A M P L E S Single clauses He was appointed president on account of his experience. He had to stand in a queue all morning. Clauses in a paratactic complex He was very understanding and he let us stay. Stay quiet or I’ll send you out. He is very hardworking; he does his job very well and helps others do theirs.
Clauses in a hypotactic complex E X A M P L E S When elections were held he was appointed president. She usually wakes him up just by shaking him softly. I queued up to recharge my bus-card but after a few minutes I left as I don’t enjoy standing in queues. As I was coming home, I met Laura. Since their granny died,the kids have been very sad. I got very angry because the plumber didn’t finish his work on time. If it gets late, we’ll have to finish the work tomorrow.
NON - RANKING CLAUSES RANKSHIFTED CLAUSES DOWN -RANKED CLAUSES EMBEDDED CLAUSES
EMBEDDED CLAUSES Definitions • it is a process whereby a clause comes to function within the structure of another clause. • it is a clause that is part of a group which in turn is part of a clause. • it is a unit that functions as part of another unit at the same or lower rank.
EMBEDDED CLAUSES Distinctive features • They can’t stand alone • They pick up the mood from an independent clause they are part to • They can’t be suppressed • They can’t be moved around. • They can be F or NF • They can realise functions like: S – O – C – q
E X A M P L E S SUBJECT: [[What I don’t enjoy]] is standing in queues. [[What most people prefer]] is others doing the work. It doesn’t matter [[where you sit]]. [[To take such a risk]] was rather foolish. [[Travelling by bus]] is cheaper than travelling by car. [[To err]] is human; [[to forgive]] is divine. [[What we need]] is change.
E X A M P L E S COMPLEMENT (Od): I brought [[what I could buy]]. I ate [[what was there]]. I hate [[travelling by bus]]. COMPLEMENT (Oi): I gave [[whoever was there]] a present. Save [[whoever comes]] the trouble of waiting. Give [[whatever you think]] best priority.
E X A M P L E S COMPLEMENT (Oprep): I strongly object to [[what you’re insinuating]]. The party will have to draw on [[whatever resources it can]]. They are all arguing about [[how much to charge for admittance]]. They stand below [[where we would like them to be]]. He was not sure about [[how he should treat him/how to treat him]].
E X A M P L E S COMPLEMENT (Cs): What I don’t enjoy is [[standing in queues.]] My advice is [[to withdraw.]] To know him is [[to love him.]] My main problem is [[standing in queues.]] This is [[how you should do it.]]
E X A M P L E S COMPLEMENT: (Co) Our supporters’ enthusiasm has made the club [[what it is today.]] Dye your shoes [[whatever colour you want.]] We’d better not leave the children [[playing in the garden.]]
E X A M P L E S QUALIFIER OF A NOUN GROUP: The fact [[that inflation is going down]] is a sign that our economy is improving. The girl [[whom I lent my book to]] has disappeared. There is no evidence [[that he committed the crime]]. He’s not a man [[to lend money to]]. This is the student [[applying for the job]]. This is exactly the place [[where Mr. Smith was murdered]]. That was the day [[when I fell in love with him]].
E X A M P L E S QUALIFIER OF AN ADJECTIVE GROUP: Many people are doubtful [[how to vote]]. The minister was quick [[to reject the accusation]]. My friends were all willing/reluctant [[to help]]. QUALIFIER OF AN ADVERBIAL GROUP: Please sit down anywhere [[you like]]. Our coach left earlier [[than he should have]]. People here don’t work as hard [[as they do in some other countries]]. He explained it so clearly [[that everybody understood]].
All the elements are present. They have bits left out, but they are recoverable from the context. CLAUSES NON-ELLIPTICAL ELLIPTICAL
E X A M P L E S NON-ELLIPTICAL ELLIPTICAL (did this mess) • Who did this mess? Bob • Are you coming to the party? Yes (I’m coming to the party). and Jill the guitar. • Jane plays the piano (plays) • Lil got furious and then started to cry. (Lil)
PRACTICE Identifying different types of clauses Problem-Solution text Heavy traffic, air pollution and litter are among the most serious problems that modern cities face nowadays. Ours is no exception. What can we do, then, to help make our city more pleasant to its residents? First of all, it would probably be a good idea to encourage people to use public transport instead of their cars, especially when commuting to work. The result would be fewer cars on the roads and therefore fewer traffic jams.
PRACTICE Identifying different types of clauses Heavy traffic, air pollution and litter are among the most serious problems that modern cities face nowadays. INDEPENDENT CLAUSE Obviously , a FINITE CLAUSE Heavy traffic, air pollution and litter are among the most serious problems [[that modern cities face nowadays. ]] EMBEDDED CLAUSE (it can’t be suppressed nor moved around) FINITE CLAUSE FUNCTION: q in a NG (q of the Thing: ‘problems’
PRACTICE Identifying different types of clauses Ours is no exception. INDEPENDENT CLAUSE Obviously , a FINITE CLAUSE // What can we do, then, to help make our city more pleasant to its residents? HYPOTACTIC CLAUSE COMPLEX What can we do, then MAIN/ DOMINANT/INDEPENDENT CLAUSE to help make our city more pleasant to its residents? DEPENDENT/ HYPOTACTIC CLAUSE NON – FINITE CLAUSE
PRACTICE Identifying different types of clauses First of all, it would probably be a good idea to encourage people to use public transport instead of their cars, especially when commuting to work. // HYPOTACTIC CLAUSE COMPLEX First of all, it would probably be a good idea to encourage people to use public transport instead of their cars, MAIN/ DOMINANT/INDEPENDENT CLAUSE especially when commuting to work. DEPENDENT/ HYPOTACTIC CLAUSE NON – FINITE CLAUSE
PRACTICE Identifying different types of clauses First of all, it would probably be a good idea [[to encourage people to use public transport instead of their cars,]] EMBEDDED CLAUSE (it can’t be suppressed nor moved around) NON-FINITE CLAUSE FUNCTION: REAL S
PRACTICE Identifying different types of clauses [[to encourage people [[to use public transport instead of their cars,]]]] EMBEDDED CLAUSE (it can’t be suppressed nor moved around) NON-FINITE CLAUSE FUNCTION: C (of the verb ‘encourage’) The result would be fewer cars on the roads and therefore fewer traffic jams. // PARATACTIC CLAUSE COMPLEX TWO INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
Try this and we’ll check on Mo 6th Secondly, steps should be taken in order to solve the problem of air pollution. The situation could be improved if factories were moved out of the city and were located far from them. If this happened, the air would not be so polluted. Finally, efforts should be made to make our city a cleaner and healthier place to live. A useful suggestion would be to put more litter bins in the streets and encourage people to use them. If this was done, people would most probably stop dropping their rubbish on the ground, and our city would be cleaner.