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Live P2P Streaming with Scalable Video Coding and Network Coding Shabnam Mirshokraie, Mohamed Hefeeda PowerPoint Presentation
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Live P2P Streaming with Scalable Video Coding and Network Coding Shabnam Mirshokraie, Mohamed Hefeeda
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  1. Live P2P Streaming with Scalable Video Coding and Network Coding Shabnam Mirshokraie, Mohamed Hefeeda School of Computing ScienceSimon Fraser University, Canada MMSys(ACM Multimedia System)2010

  2. Outlines • Introduction • Proposed P2P streaming system • Evaluation results • Conclusion

  3. Introduction • Wide deployment of P2P streaming systems • PPLive, UUSee, SopCast, CoolStreaming, …. • Users demand better video quality • Higher resolution, frame rate, fidelity • However, P2P systems face multiple challenges • Limited upload capacity (ADSL, Cable) • High churn rate • Diverse receivers • Screen resolutions, bandwidth, CPU capacity

  4. Motivations • To provide better quality, we need to: • Deploy more resources (seed servers) • Efficiently manage current resources • Maximize utilization of peers’ upload capacity • Customize multimedia content for diverse receivers • Adapt to network and peer dynamics • Our focus in this paper

  5. Our Work • Propose new design for P2P streaming systems • Employ both: Scalable Video CodingANDNetwork Coding • Performance benefits well beyond those achieved by each • Implementation and quantification of potential gain • Much higher (several dBs) visual quality • Smoother streaming rate • More streaming capacity • Higher robustness

  6. Related Works • Most currently deployed systems use single-layer videos • Network coding in P2P streaming systems [Wang 07, Feng 08, …] • Improve performance of single-layer videos • But limited support for heterogeneous receivers • Scalable video coding in P2P streaming systems [Lan 07, Cui 03, Rejaie 03, Hefeeda 08, … ] • Better support for heterogeneous receivers • But may not fully utilize peer’s capacity

  7. Related Works • Network coding and scalable video coding [Chenguang 07, Zhao 06] • Assume static tree-based streaming systems • Solve integer linear programming (ILP) problem to determine the maximum number of layers for receivers in multicast sessions • Our work is for dynamic mesh-based streaming systems—the most common in practice • And we provide practical validation

  8. Brief Background • Scalable Video Coding (recent H.264/SVC) • Multi-layer streams • Temporal, spatial, and quality scalability • Low overhead [Schwarz 07 ] • Efficient extraction and customization of streams

  9. Brief Background • Network Coding • Increases throughput • Reduces buffering delay • Improves robustness • Source and intermediate nodes encode data blocks • Receivers use coefficients to decode blocks • Encoding and decoding linear operations over finite fields

  10. Overview of Proposed System • Mesh-based P2P streaming system • 3 entities in our system • Tracker • Matching peers viewing the same video stream • Multiple dynamic swarms • Source node (seed server) • Providing additional capacity • Distributing network-coded scalable video streams • Peers • Receiving clients • Sharing their upload bandwidth to serve others

  11. Peer Software Architecture: Receiver • Download Scheduler • Compute the number of required encoded blocks • Progressive NC Decoder • Gauss-Jordan elimination • Multi-threaded • SVC Layer Manager • Prepare the video data for the video player • Sharing Buffer • Potential upload to other peers Figure 1: Peer Software Architecture. Dashed arrows denote video data, and solid arrows denote control messages.

  12. Peer Software Architecture: Sender • Random NC Encoder • Linear operations on blocks of each video layer separately • Reduces network coding complexity • Robustness • No need to have centralized knowledge • Upload Scheduler • Selects receivers (incentives) Figure 1: Peer Software Architecture. Dashed arrows denote video data, and solid arrows denote control messages.

  13. Source Node Architecture and Functions • Prepare video streams before introducing them into the system • Encoding a video stream into multiple layers • Equal-length segments • Network coding operations on individual segments • Fixed-size blocks • Different layers may contain different number of blocks

  14. Evaluation: Setup • Testing application to evaluate our implementation • Scalable Videos • Three: Sony Demo, Tokyo Olympics, NBC News • 5 scalable layers each • Average Y-PSNR from 35.5 to 47.6 dB • Y-PSNR : peak signal to noise ratio of the intensity component of the video • Average bit rate from 325 to 850 kbps • CIF frames(352x288), frame rate of 30 fps • Network coding • Random network coding • Progressive decoding • Fixed block size for all layers

  15. Evaluation: Setup Table 1: Characteristics of Videos used in the Experiments. Table 2: Upload Bandwidths Distribution of peer.

  16. Evaluation: Setup • P2P system • Highly-dynamic P2P streaming system • 1,000 heterogeneous peers • High churn rates • Flash crowd scenarios • Practical upload/download bandwidth distribution [Liu 08]

  17. Evaluation: Setup • Comparing proposed system (SVC+NC) against • Scalable video coding (SVC) • Single layer video streams with network coding (SL+NC) • Single layer streams (SL) • Performance metrics • Average streaming rate • The total amount of received video data per second • Average streaming quality • Y-PSNR of the frames received on time divided by the total number of frames • Number of streaming requests served • We refer to a request as served when it is responded by neighbors and received on time by the requesting peer • Fraction of late frames • Divides the number of late frames to the total number of requested frames

  18. Evaluation: Average Streaming Rate • Less than 18% of peers receive rate of 200 kbps or less, • 50% of peers receive 600+ kbps (a) Sony Demo

  19. Evaluation: Average Streaming Quality • More than 5 dB quality improvement • More stable and smoother quality against SL and SL+NC (a) Sony Demo

  20. Evaluation: Number of Served Requests (a) Sony Demo More streaming capacity: up to 30% more requests served

  21. Evaluation: Fraction of Late Frames • Almost no peer with high fraction of late frames • 16% of peers with more than 80% of late frames in single layer streaming system (a) Sony Demo

  22. Impact of Churn Rate on Video Quality • Improving the quality as more peers join • More throughput, providing more video layers • Efficient use of resources of the new peers (a) Sony Demo

  23. Impact of Flash Crowd Arrivals • Demand for receiving video data more than available resources • Up to 5 dB improvement • Low quality under very high peer arrival rates • Limited upload capacity (a) Sony Demo

  24. Conclusions • New system for P2P streaming • Integration of network coding and scalable video coding • Supports receiver heterogeneity • Better utilization of peer upload bandwidth • More robust for network and peer dynamics • Evaluation study in realistic settings • Significant performance gain in • Visual quality • Average streaming rate • Streaming capacity • Adaptation to high peer dynamics

  25. References • [Gkantsidis 05]C. Gkantsidis and P. Rodriguez. Network coding for large scale content distribution. In Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM’05, pages 2235–2245, Miami, FL, March 2005. • [Wang 07] M. Wang and B. Li. Lava: A reality check of network coding in peer-to-peer live streaming. In Proc. Of IEEE INFOCOM’07, pages 1082–1090, Anchorage, AK, May 2007. • [Feng 08] C. Feng and B. Li. On large-scale peer-to-peer streaming systems with network coding. In Proc. Of ACM Multimedia’08, pages 269–278, Vancouver, Canada, October 2008. • [Chenguang 07] X. Chenguang, X. Yinlong, Z. Cheng, W. Ruizhe, and W. Qingshan. On network coding based multirate video streaming in directed networks. In Proc. Of IEEE International Conference on Performance, Computing and Communications (IPCCC’07), pages 332–339, New Orleans, LA, April 2007. • [Zhao 06] J. Zhao, F. Yang, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and F. Zhang. Lion: Layered overlay multicast with network coding. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 8(5):1021–1032, October 2006. • [Nguyen 07] K. Nguyen, T. Nguyen, and S. Cheung. Peer-to-peer streaming with hierarchical network coding. In Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME’07), pages 396–399, Beijing, China, July 2007. • [Liu 08]Z. Liu, Y. Shen, K. Ross, J. Panwar, , and Y. Wang. Substream trading: Towards an open P2P live streaming system. In Proc. of IEEE Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP’08), pages 94–103, Orlando, FL, October 2008.