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Academic Writing. First semester English fall 2007 - , dictionaries, thesauruses and other language ressources, vocabulary choice, unbiased language. today. Language ressources Vocabulary choice Unbiased language. today. Dictinaries, thesauruses and other language ressources

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academic writing

Academic Writing

First semester English fall 2007 - , dictionaries, thesauruses and other language ressources, vocabulary choice, unbiased language

today
today
  • Language ressources
  • Vocabulary choice
  • Unbiased language
today3
today
  • Dictinaries, thesauruses and other language ressources
  • Vocabulary choice
    • Informal and formal verbs: comp. pp. 36-37, task 1 (comp. p. 41)
    • Informal and formal words, generally: comp. pp. 38-40, task 2 (comp. p. 41)
    • Informal and formal words, negative forms: task 3 (comp. p. 42)
    • Avoiding ’weak verbs’: task 4 (comp. p. 43-44)
  • Unbiased language: comp. p. 46-47, tasks 1 and 2: pair work and discussion
slide5
dictionary   ( abbr.: dict. )→ n.  (pl. -aries) a book that lists the words of a language in alphabetical order and gives their meaning, or that gives the equivalent words in a different language. • a reference book on any subject, the items of which are arranged in alphabetical order: a dictionary of quotations.
slide6
thesaurus→ n.  (pl. thesauri /  -r / or thesauruses) 1. a book that lists words in groups of synonyms and related concepts. 2. (archaic) a dictionary or encyclopedia. - ORIGIN C16: via L. from Gk th sauros ‘storehouse, treasure’.
access via aub
Access via AUB
  • www.aub.aau.dk
  • E-håndbøger
  • Oxford Dictionary of English
  • Log on via Single Sign-On
  • http://www.aub.aau.dk/portal/js_pane/forside/article/185
oxford reference online9
Oxford Reference Online
  • English Dictionaries & Reference
  • English Dictionaries & ThesaurusesEnglish Language ReferenceBilingual Dictionaries
  • Quotations
  • Maps & Illustrations
  • Timelines
  • Encyclopedia
  • Subject Reference
  • Art & Architecture
  • Biological Sciences
  • Classics
  • Computing
  • Earth & Environmental Sciences
  • Economics & Business
  • Food & Drink
  • History
  • Law
  • Literature
  • Medicine
  • Military History
  • Mythology & Folklore
  • Names & Places
  • Performing Arts
  • Physical Sciences & Mathematics
  • Politics & Social Sciences
  • Religion & Philosophy
  • Science
english dictionaries
English dictionaries
  • suitable→ adjectiveright or appropriate for a particular person, purpose, or situation: these toys are not suitable for children under five.- DERIVATIVES suitabilitynounsuitablenessnounsuitablyadverb . - ORIGIN late 16th cent.: from the verb suit, on the pattern of agreeable.
  • How to cite this entry:"suitable adjective"  The Oxford Dictionary of English (revised edition). Ed. Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2005. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Aalborg University Library.  10 April 2007  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t140.e76835>
english thesauruses
English thesauruses
  • suitableadjective1. find a suitable date convenient, acceptable, satisfactory. 2. wear suitable shoes | shoes suitable for dancing right, appropriate, fitting, apt. 3. not suitable behavior appropriate, fitting, becoming, seemly, decorous, proper. 4. a suitable candidate for the post right, appropriate, fitting, apt, well qualified, ideal. suitable fora speech suitable for the occasion suited to, befitting, appropriate to, relevant to, pertinent to, apposite to, in keeping with, in character with, tailor-made for. opposites: unsuitable; unfit; inapt.
  • How to cite this entry:"suitable adjective"  The Oxford American Thesaurus of Current English. Ed. Christine A. Lindberg. Oxford University Press, 1999. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Aalborg University Library.  10 April 2007  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t22.e13444>
english language reference
English language reference
  • The Oxford Dictionary of AbbreviationsThe Concise Oxford Dictionary of English EtymologyThe Oxford Dictionary of English GrammarConcise Oxford Companion to the English LanguageA New Dictionary of EponymsThe Oxford Essential Dictionary of Foreign Terms in English
  • The Oxford Dictionary of IdiomsThe Concise Oxford Dictionary of LinguisticsThe Oxford Dictionary of ProverbsOxford Dictionary of RhymesThe Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and StylePocket Fowler's Modern English Usage
the oxford dictionary of english grammar
The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar
  • Results from your search for noun phrase
  • 1. noun phraseA word or group of words functioning in a sentence exactly like a noun, with a noun or pronoun as HEAD . A noun phrase (abbreviated NP ) can be a noun or pronoun alone, but is frequently a noun or pronoun with pre- and/or post-modification: the name ...(From The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar in English Language Reference)2. prepositional phraseA preposition plus its object (or complement). Prepositional phrase is a formal class rather than a functional one. Prepositional phrases function mainly as adverbials: Come into the garden , Maud / and postmodifiers in noun phrases: the Lady of ...(From The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar in English Language Reference)3. noun-equivalentA word or words functioning like a noun. This is a somewhat dated term, covering not only NOUN PHRASE but also NOMINAL CLAUSE .(From The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar in English Language Reference)4. phraseA linguistic unit at a level between a word and a clause. In traditional grammar, phrases include what are now often called non-finite clauses (e.g. to come in things to come ). Various kinds of phrase are recognized in modern grammar: ADJECTIVE , ...(From The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar in English Language Reference)5. nounA word other than a pronoun that belongs to the WORD-CLASS that inflects for plural, and that can function as subject or object in a sentence, can be preceded by articles and adjectives, and can be the object of a preposition. In traditional grammar, ...(From The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar in English Language Reference)
the oxford dictionary of abbreviations
The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations
  • e.g.ejusdem generis (Latin: of a like kind)• exempli gratia (Latin: for example)
  • How to cite this entry:"e.g."  The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. Oxford University Press, 1998. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  Aalborg University Library.  10 April 2007  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t25.e6796>
the oxford dictionary of abbreviations15
The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations
  • MPBritish vehicle registration forLondon NE• Madhya Pradesh (Indian state)• Metallurgymartensitic phase• airline flight code forMartinair Holland• medium pressure• Member of Parliament• Physiol.membrane potential• CartographyMercator's projection• metal pollutant• Chem.methyl-2-pyrrolidone• Metropolitan Police• Cartographymile post• Military Police(man)• mille passuum (Latin: 1000 paces; i.e. the Roman mile)• Minister Plenipotentiary• miscellaneous papers (or publications)• Mounted Police(man)
the oxford dictionary of idioms
The Oxford Dictionary of Idioms
  • bluebetween the devil and the deep blue sea see devil.a bolt from the blue: see bolt.do something until you are blue in the face persist in trying your hardest at an activity but without success. informalonce in a blue moon very rarely; practically never. informal •The colour blue was an arbitrary choice in this phrase. To say that the moon is blue is recorded in the sixteenth century as a way of indicating that something could not be true.
  • out of the blue without warning; unexpectedly. informal •This phrase refers to a blue (i.e. clear) sky, from which nothing unusual is expected.
  • scream blue murder see murder.talk a blue streak speak continuously and at great length. North American informal •A blue streak refers to something like a flash of lightning in its speed and vividness.
  • true blue genuine. •The sense of someone being true blue may derive from the idea of someone being genuinely aristocratic, or having ‘blue blood’. In recent times, the term true blue has become particularly associated with loyal supporters of the British Conservative party.
  • the wide (or wild) blue yonder the sky or sea; the far or unknown distance. •The phrase comes from Army Air Corps (1939), a song by Robert Crawford: ‘Off we go into the wild blue yonder, Climbing high into the sun’.
the oxford dictionary of idioms17
The Oxford Dictionary of Idioms
  • devilbetween the devil and the deep blue sea caught in a dilemma; trapped between two equally dangerous alternatives.
the oxford dictionary of proverbs
The Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs
  • 1. horsesee also don't change horses in midstream ; england is the paradise of women ; never look a gift horse in the mouth ; a good horse cannot be of a bad colour ; while the grass grows, the steed starves ; the grey mare is the better horse ; because a man ...(From The Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs in English Language Reference)2. HORSES for coursesOriginally an expression in horse-racing: different horses are suited to different race courses. Now widely used in other contexts. A familiar phrase on the turf is ‘horses for courses’. ..The Brighton Course is very like Epsom, and horses that win at ...(From The Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs in English Language Reference)3. NO foot, no horseIn North America as no hoof, no horse . No Foot, No Horse. An essay on the anatomy of the foot of..a horse. ‘No foot, no horse’ exactly expresses that which I desire to impress on the reader in the following pages. Without the full and perfect use of ...(From The Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs in English Language Reference)4. Don't PUT the cart before the horseMost commonly as the phrase ( putting ) the cart before the horse . That techer setteth the carte before the horse that preferreth imitacyon before preceptes. We call it in English prouerbe, the cart before the horse, the Greeks call it Histeron ...(From The Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs in English Language Reference)5. If WISHES were horses, beggars would rideAnd [if] wishes were horses pure [poor] men wald ryde. If Wishes were Horses, Beggars would ride. If wishes were horses, Beggars would ride; If turnips were watches, I would wear one by my side. If wishes were horses Unionists would ride rapidly into ...(From The Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs in English Language Reference)6. Don't CHANGE horses in mid-streamThe proverb is also used in the phrase to change horses in mid-stream . I am reminded..of a story of an old Dutch farmer, who remarked to a companion once that ‘it was best not to swap horses when crossing streams’. ‘If ours is the true religion why do ...(From The Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs in English Language Reference)
vocabulary choice
Vocabulary choice
  • Vocabulary shifts – verbs
  • Informal (spoken)  formal (written)
    • Use specific verbs (comp. p. 36)
    • Avoid phrasal verbs (comp. p. 37)
task 1
task 1
  • Molten carbonate fuel cells are set up to run at higher temperatures than phosphoric acid or proton exchange membrane fuel cells and can get higher fuel-to-electricity and overall energy use efficiencies than these low temperature cells. In a molten carbonate fuel cell, the electrolyte is made up of lithium-potassium carbonate salts heated to about 1,200 degrees F (650 degrees C). At these temperatures, the salts melt into a molten state that can conduct charged particles, called ions, between two porous electrodes. Molten carbonate fuel cells do away with the external fuel processors that other lower temperature fuel cells need to take out hydrogen from the fuel. When natural gas is the fuel, methane (the main ingredient of natural gas) and steam are turned into a hydrogen-rich gas inside the fuel cell stack. At the anode, hydrogen reacts with the carbonate ions to make water, carbon dioxide, and electrons. The electrons go through an external circuit creating electricity and come back to the cathode. There, oxygen from the air and carbon dioxide recycled from the anode react with the electrons to make carbonate ions that replenish the electrolyte and pass on current through the fuel cell, completing the circuit.
task 121
task 1
  • Molten carbonate fuel cells are set up to run at higher temperatures than phosphoric acid or proton exchange membrane fuel cells and can get higher fuel-to-electricity and overall energy use efficiencies than these low temperature cells. In a molten carbonate fuel cell, the electrolyte is made up of lithium-potassium carbonate salts heated to about 1,200 degrees F (650 degrees C). At these temperatures, the salts melt into a molten state that can conduct charged particles, called ions, between two porous electrodes. Molten carbonate fuel cells do away with the external fuel processors that other lower temperature fuel cells need to take out hydrogen from the fuel. When natural gas is the fuel, methane (the main ingredient of natural gas) and steam are turned into a hydrogen-rich gas inside the fuel cell stack. At the anode, hydrogen reacts with the carbonate ions to make water, carbon dioxide, and electrons. The electrons go through an external circuit creating electricity and come back to the cathode. There, oxygen from the air and carbon dioxide recycled from the anode react with the electrons to make carbonate ions that replenish the electrolyte and pass on current through the fuel cell, completing the circuit.
task 122
task 1
  • Molten carbonate fuel cells are designed to operate at higher temperatures than phosphoric acid or proton exchange membrane fuel cells and can achieve higher fuel-to-electricity and overall energy use efficiencies than these low temperature cells. In a molten carbonate fuel cell, the electrolyte is composed of lithium-potassium carbonate salts heated to about 1,200 degrees F (650 degrees C). At these temperatures, the salts melt into a molten state that can conduct charged particles, called ions, between two porous electrodes. Molten carbonate fuel cells eliminate the external fuel processors that other lower temperature fuel cells need to extract/remove hydrogen from the fuel. When natural gas is the fuel, methane (the main ingredient of natural gas) and steam are converted into a hydrogen-rich gas inside the fuel cell stack. At the anode, hydrogen reacts with the carbonate ions to produce water, carbon dioxide, and electrons. The electrons traverse an external circuit creating electricity and return to the cathode. There, oxygen from the air and carbon dioxide recycled from the anode react with the electrons to form carbonate ions that replenish the electrolyte and transfer current through the fuel cell, completing the circuit.
task 2
Task 2
  • approach is widely/ extensively  used in environmental studies associated with peat regeneration. Andrews and Maver utilised/ used  it for measuring regeneration in different/ various  peat bogs in Ireland.
  • This approach is extensively used in environmental studies associated with peat regeneration. Andrews and Maver utilised it for measuring regeneration in various peat bogs in Ireland.
task 225
Task 2
  • Segments based on household characteristics can be examined/ looked at  to determine if/ whether  they differ in terms of preferences and purchase behaviours.
  • Segments based on household characteristics can be examined to determine whether they differ in terms of preferences and purchase behaviours.
task 226
Task 2
  • A sensor is considered/ deemed  dead if its residual energy drops/ goes  below E = tc.
  • A sensor is deemed dead if its residual energy drops below E = tc.
task 227
Task 2
  • The S-band tunable resonators are put together/ assembled  using conductive epoxy, although solder joints can also be used/ employed.
  • The S-band tunable resonators are assembled using conductive epoxy, although solder joints can also be employed .
task 228
Task 2
  • As the cost of production declines/ falls  and efficiency goes up/ increases, fuel cells are expected to find many more applications.
  • As the cost of production declines and efficiency increases , fuel cells are expected to find many more applications.
task 229
Task 2
  • fuel cell is a device that turns/ converts  hydrogen and oxygen into electricity.
  • A fuel cell is a device that converts hydrogen and oxygen into electricity.
task 230
Task 2
  • Fuel cell vehicles are the least polluting of all vehicles that use up/ consume  fuel directly.
  • Fuel cell vehicles are the least polluting of all vehicles that consume fuel directly.
task 231
Task 2
  • Scientists plan to perform/ do  tests with methanol-like fuels during the next stage of research.
  • Scientists plan to perform tests with methanol-like fuels during the next stage of research.
vocabulary choice32
Vocabulary choice:
  • Negative forms
task 3
Task 3
  • 1. While there     is not a lot of     technological impact already present in the nanoscale device area other than GMR read heads, several potential areas of significant impact do appear on the horizon.
  • 1. While there is little technological impact already present in the nanoscale device area other than GMR read heads, several potential areas of significant impact do appear on the horizon.
task 334
task 3
  • 2. The use of space in an information landscape is fundamentally different from that of traditional design. One example of this can be seen in the presentation of footnotes or supplementary material. In traditional book design there     are not very many     options for visually treating such related materials.
  • 2. The use of space in an information landscape is fundamentally different from that of traditional design. One example of this can be seen in the presentation of footnotes or supplementary material. In traditional book design there are few options for visually treating such related materials.
task 335
task 3
  • 3. We     have not conducted any     formal studies on user satisfaction, mostly because of logistical issues.
  • 3. We have conducted no formal studies on user satisfaction, mostly because of logistical issues.
task 336
task 3
  • 4. In a sense, information technology has come of age. Although     not all     of the necessary infrastructure is in place, the capacity for efficient distribution of information electronically is a fait accompli.
  • 4. In a sense, information technology has come of age. Although little of the necessary infrastructure is in place, the capacity for efficient distribution of information electronically is a fait accompli.
task 337
task 3
  • 5. The application of image registration to the enhancement of image resolution is an active area of research in image processing. However,     few researchers have applied     these results to the emulation of dynamic images created by manual artists and photographers.
  • 5. The application of image registration to the enhancement of image resolution is an active area of research in image processing. However, few researchers have applied these results to the emulation of dynamic images created by manual artists and photographers.
task 338
task 3
  • 6.  Although there     is not any     centralized program on nanotechnology, there are components in specific institutional programs.
  • 6. Although there is no centralized program on nanotechnology, there are components in specific institutional programs.
task 4
task 4
  • 1. The length of the technology programme is 3-4 years (2005-2009), and the budget will be 20 million euros.
  • The technology programme will last 3-4 years (2005-2009), and the budget will be 20 million euros.
  • The first version is less effective because it places the action into the noun"length"; the new improved version replaces the weak verb "is" with an action verb "to last".
task 441
task 4
  • 2. The technology programme will last 3-4 years (2005-2009), and the budget will be 20 million euros.
  • The technology programme will last 3-4 years (2005-2009) and have a budget of 20 million euros.
  • When giving numerical results or data, writers tend to avoid using the verb "to be" in favor of the structure: have a [variable] of [numerical result]. In this case, the variable is "budget".
    • Other correct answers would include:
      • will have
      • will operate on/with
      • operate on/with
task 442
task 4
  • 3.  There are five frequency bands (that are) used by GSM mobile phones. GSM-900 and GSM-1800 are used in most of the world.
  • Five frequency are used by GSM mobile phones. GSM-900 and GSM-1800 are used in most of the world.
  • The first version is less effective because it 'hides' the action in a relative clause "that are used"; the new improved version replaces the weak verb "there is" with an action verb "uses".
task 443
task 4
  • 4. There are five frequency bands (that are) used by GSM mobile phones. GSM-900 and GSM-1800 are used in most of the world.
  • GSM mobile phones use five frequency bands. GSM-900 and GSM-1800 are used in most of the world.
  • This has the same problem as in the previous example. However, here we have chosen to topicalize"GSM mobile phones" rather than "five frequency bands".
task 444
task 4
  • 5. There has been a 0.5 to 0.9 ºF increase in global mean air temperature over the past 100 years.
  • Global mean air temperature has increased by 0.5 to 0.9 degrees Fahrenheit over the past 100 years.
  • The first version is less effective because it places the action into the noun"a... increase in..."; the new improved version replaces the weak verb "is" with an action verb "to increase"
    • Other correct answers would include: has risen .
task 445
task 4
  • 6. In North America, the primary mobile communication bands for GSM are 850 MHz and 1900 MHz.
  • In North America, GSM primarily operates on the 850-MHz and 1900-MHz mobile communication bands.
  • When giving numerical results or data ("850-MHz and 1900-MHz"), writers tend to avoid using the verb "to be" in favor of verbs that 'do' something (to operate).
task 446
task 4
  • 7. Initial implementations were exclusively 1900 MHz, with 850 MHz being added in 2001.
  • GSM was initially implemented on the 1900-MHz band, with 850 MHz being added in 2001.
  • The first version is less effective because it places the action into the noun"implementation"; the new improved version replaces the weak verb "is" with an action verb "to implement".
    • Other correct answers would include: put into operation
task 447
task 4
  • 8. In Canada, GSM-1900 is the primary frequency (that is) used in urban areas, with GSM-850 being the primary rural frequency. In the United States, regulatory requirements determine which area can use particular frequencies.
  • Canada primarily uses the GSM-1900 frequency in urban areas, and GSM-850 as the primary rural frequency. In the United States, regulatory requirements determine which area can use particular frequencies.
  • The first version is less effective because it 'hides' the action in a relative clause "that are used"; the new improved version replaces the weak verb "is" with an action verb "uses".
task 448
task 4
  • 9. Today, There are many multi-mode phones which can operate on both GSM systems as well as mobile-phone systems using other technical standards. Often these phones also use multiple frequency bands.
  • Today, many multi-mode phones can operate on both GSM systems as well as mobile-phone systems using other technical standards. Often these phones also use multiple frequency bands.
  • The first version is less effective because it 'hides' the action in a relative clause "which can operate"; the new improved version replaces the weak verb "there is" with an action verb "operates".
    • Other correct answers would include: can function
task 449
task 4
  • 10. The number of wireless phone customers using Global System for Mobile (GSM) communications service in the United and Canada are now more than 10 million.
  • The number of wireless phone customers using Global System for Mobile (GSM) communications service in the United and Canada now surpasses 10 million.
  • When giving numerical results or data ("10 million"), writers tend to avoid using the verb "to be" in favor of verbs that 'do' something (to surpass or to exceed).
    • Other correct answers would include:
      • surpass
      • exceed
unbiased language
Unbiased language
  • Gender-specific pronouns – read comp. pp. 45-46
task 152
Task 1
  • A college is a corner of our hearts where hope has not died. […] Here, we assert, endow, and defend as final reality the best of our dreams. […]
task 254
Task 2
  • Professors should correct their students' papers according to this set of predetermined guidelines.
  • From the beginning of time, humans used horses in one way or another
  • Are there any first-year students who would like to work in the Writing Center?
  • The flight attendant served the chicken picatta to the pompous passenger.
  • Shannon was hoping a doctor would give an opinion.
  • She aspires to become a corporate attorney.
  • Dan's grandmother lives by superstitions.
  • The author, Mary Higgins Clark, hosted a book signing at Barnes and Noble.
  • Ask Hayden's parents to pack him a better lunch in the future.
  • Jordan and her colleges from the office devoured tuna fish on rye.
for next week
For next week
  • Indiviual home assigment (see www.hum.aau.dk/~yding/academicwriting_e07) - hand-in date Friday 26 Oct to Sinne
  • If you have questions about the language portfolio, bring them next week.
study time
Study time
  • Task 1 (compendium p. 53).
  • Revise your text on postcolonial English. Make vocabulary changes if necessary.