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Russian Revolution. END OF THE ROMANOV’S. Russia under Nicholas II. Nicholas II- Romanov family Czar in 1894 at age 26 Did NOT want to become czar Ruled as autocrat. Nicholas II. Attempts at Modernization. Russia was weak and undeveloped Sergei Witte- czar’s minister

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russian revolution
Russian Revolution
  • END OF THE ROMANOV’S
russia under nicholas ii
Russia under Nicholas II
  • Nicholas II- Romanov family
    • Czar in 1894 at age 26
    • Did NOT want to become czar
    • Ruled as autocrat
attempts at modernization
Attempts at Modernization
  • Russia was weak and undeveloped
  • Sergei Witte- czar’s minister
    • 1900 worked for industrialization
    • Foreign experts brought in
    • Trans-Siberian RR completed
    • Increased taxes
    • Borrowed money from foreigners
unrest develops from urbanization
Unrest Develops from Urbanization
  • Peasants left farms for factories
  • Workers unhappy with low standard of living and little political power
  • Upper-class resented power of foreign companies
  • Critics look to a new form of government
lenin and the bolsheviks
Lenin and the Bolsheviks
  • Vladimir Ilyich Lenin- studied Marx
    • Brother was executed for plot against the czar
    • 1895 Lenin was arrested and sent to Siberia for political activities then left Russia for 17 years
    • In Europe Lenin continued his anti-czarist activities
russian marxists split
Russian Marxists Split
  • Both groups agreed Russia was not industrialized or capitalist
  • Mensheviks – “minority”
    • Socialist revolution needed to wait until proletariat grows
  • Bolsheviks – “majority”
    • Form secret group to help workers revolt
    • Secret group would rule until proletariat ready
russian marxists split1
Russian Marxists Split
  • Both groups agreed Russia was not industrialized or capitalist
  • Mensheviks – “minority”
    • Socialist revolution needed to wait until proletariat grows
  • Bolsheviks – “majority”
    • Form secret group to help workers revolt
    • Secret group would rule until proletariat ready
revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1905
  • 1905- Russia defeated in Russo-Japanese War
  • 1905- Workers in St. Petersburg revolt
    • Soviets formed- representative council for the people
  • October Manifesto- Czar gives constitution
    • Duma- first parliament, czar had veto power
slide12

Rasputin

and the

Romanvos

slide15
WWI
  • Russia interested in Balkans brings her into war
  • 1915- Nicholas goes to front to rally troops
  • Alexandra left to rule with Rasputin
    • “Holy man” who could control Alexis’ hemophilia
    • 1916 Nobles kill Rasputin- felt their power threatened
the march revolution
The March Revolution
  • Causes:
    • Defeats of war
    • Discontent (food, fuel shortage)
    • Weaknesses of autocracy
  • Strike led by women textile workers in Petrograd
  • Soldiers turn on officers, not people
results of march revolution
Results of March Revolution
  • Nicholas II abdicates
  • Provisional Government under Alexander Kerensky
    • Russia stays in WWI
    • Western-style parliamentary govt.
  • People unhappy
petrograd soviet
Petrograd Soviet
  • Competes with Provisional Govt. for control
  • Favored withdrawal from WWI
  • Favored radical social reform for workers and peasants
  • Actually held more power than Provisional Govt.
three government choices
Three Government Choices
  • Russia lost faith in govt, Lenin is returned by Germans
  • 1. Parliamentary Govt- order through Democratic reform (Provisional)
  • 2. Military Dictatorship- restore order by armed force
three govt choices cont
Three Govt. Choices cont…
  • 3. Rule by workers’ and soldiers’ soviets
    • Petrograd Soviet controlled by Lenin and Bolsheviks
    • Offered: land, food, and self-determination to non-Russians
  • People wanted real change: Who would they favor and why?
fall 1917
Fall 1917…
  • “All power to the soviets”
  • Bolshevik Revolution
    • Nov. 7- Leon Trotsky, leading Lenin’s supporters, seized government
    • Provisional Govt. officials arrested
    • Communists come to power
slide22

October

Revolution

state building under lenin
State-building under Lenin
  • Chaos worsened under Bolsheviks
    • No effective govt. or army
    • No food, commerce, or industry
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918)
  • Bolsheviks/Communists decide to eliminate ALL opposition
treaty of brest litovsk
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
  • Signed with Germany
  • Lost Finland, possessions in Poland, Baltic States, Ukraine
  • Treaty cancelled when Germany lost war
  • Finland, Baltic States gained independence
civil war breaks out
Civil War Breaks Out
  • “Whites”- opponents of Bolsheviks, aided by West
    • Parliamentary Govt. supporters
    • Czarist defenders
    • Moderate Socialists
  • “Reds”- Communists
  • “Greens”- Ukrainian peasants
    • Want independence
communist dictatorship
Terror Tactics

Economic Policy

Kronstadt Rebellion

Centralized Govt.

Soviet Union

Religious persecution

Propaganda

Communist Dictatorship
terror tactics
Terror Tactics
  • “Dictatorship of the Proletariat”
  • Secret police used to kill and suspected opponents of govt.
economics war communism
Economics= War Communism
  • Nationalization of industry, banks, foreign trade
  • Draft used for labor and army
  • Strikes forbidden
  • Food taken from peasants and given to cities and armies
  • ***Russia continues to decline***
centralized government
Centralized Government
  • Govt. moved to Kremlin- Moscow
  • Politburo led new govt.
    • unity stressed (thrown out)
    • political parties banned
    • only 1% of population was Communist (500,000)
    • Decisions made at top (like czar)
    • Party ran unions
state and party linked
State and Party Linked
  • Soviets elected locally but led by Party
  • Soviets
    • district, regional, republic level
  • Supreme Soviet- highest govt. authority
    • Council of Ministers- Party members who made up executive branch
the soviet union
The Soviet Union
  • Formed in 1922 by Communists
  • 15 Republics based on nationalities
  • Identical constitutions
  • Controlled by Party
  • Limited self-rule
  • Self-determination in writing only
religious persecution
Religious Persecution
  • Religion was threat
  • State schools taught God did NOT exist
  • Church seen as possible tool of control
    • Land and property seized
propaganda
Propaganda
  • Govt. controlled and censored information
  • Lenin tried to isolate USSR from West
  • Party ideology enforced
    • Marxism-Leninism