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Restoring and Protecting Chesapeake Bay and River Water Quality. June 2005. The Chesapeake Bay is North America’s largest and most biologically diverse estuary, home to more than 3,600 species of plants, fish and animals.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

The Chesapeake Bay is North America’s largest and most biologically diverse estuary, home to more than 3,600 species of plants, fish and animals.

slide3
For more than 300 years, the Bay and its tributaries have sustained the region’s economy anddefined its traditions and culture.
slide4
It is a resource of extraordinary productivity, worthy of the highest levels ofprotection and restoration.
the chesapeake bay program partnership
The Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership

Governor of MD

Governor of PA

Governor of VA

Mayor of DC

EPA Administrator

Executive Council

Chair of Chesapeake Bay Commission

purpose of this presentation
Purpose of This Presentation

To answer common questions about the efforts related to protecting and restoring Bay and river water quality:

  • What’s the problem with Bay and river water quality?
  • What do we want to achieve?
  • How might the Bay and its tidal rivers look with restored water quality?
  • How far have we come?
  • How do we define restored Bay and river water quality?
  • What needs to be done?
  • Who is involved? What is the timeline?
  • How will other Bay agreement commitments help restore the complete ecosystem?
what s the problem with bay and river water quality
What’s the Problem with Bay and RiverWater Quality?

Because things on land are easily washed into streams and rivers, our actions on land ultimately affect the Bay.

Section 1: What’s the Problem

slide8
Most scientists believe that nutrients and sediment are the root of most water quality problems in the Bay.

The amount of nutrients that would naturally enter the Bay would be okay, but the amount going into the Bay now has been amplified by people.

When we use fertilizers, dispose of sewage, drive cars, and generate electricity, we harm the Bay.

Section 1: What’s the Problem

water quality problems
Water Quality Problems

Algae blooms and depleted oxygen levels are caused by nutrient pollution.

When the algae die and decompose, they use up oxygen needed by other plants and animals living in the Bay's waters.

Poor water clarity is caused by algae blooms and sediment pollution.

Algae blooms and sediment cloud the water and block sunlight, causing underwater bay grasses to die.

Section 1: What’s the Problem

sources of nutrient pollution to the bay
Sources of Nutrient Pollution to the Bay

Stormwater and groundwater carry nutrients into rivers and the Bay from a variety of nonpoint sources, such as farms, lawns, gardens, golf courses and septic tanks.

Scientists believe that agricultural sources contribute the largest portion of the nutrient pollution entering the Bay.

Point sources, such as wastewater treatment plants, are the second largest contributors of nutrient pollution to the rivers and the Bay.

Section 1: What’s the Problem

a significant amount of nitrogen pollution is created when we generate electricity and drive cars
A significant amount of nitrogen pollution is created when we generate electricity and drive cars.

Generating electric power by burning fossil fuels, such as coal and oil, releases nitrogen, in the form of nitrogen oxide gas, into the air.

Nitrogen oxide gases from automobile exhaust are another source of nitrogen pollution.

When it rains, this nitrogen is washed out of the air and off of the land, eventually making its way into rivers and the Bay.

Section 1: What’s the Problem

what do we want to achieve
What Do We Want to Achieve?

Achieve and maintain the water quality necessary to support the aquatic living resources of the Bay and its tributaries and to protect human health.

Section 2: What Do We Want to Achieve

chesapeake 2000 the new agreement
Chesapeake 2000: The New Agreement

In June 2000, the Chesapeake Bay Program partners signed a new agreement to guide the restoration and protection of the Bay through the next decade and beyond.

In Chesapeake 2000, the partners agreed that:

Improving water quality is the most critical element in the overall protection and restoration of the Chesapeake Bay and its rivers.

Section 2: What Do We Want to Achieve

bay and river water quality commitment
Bay and River Water Quality Commitment

In order to achieve and maintain the water quality necessary to support aquatic living resources, one of the commitments the partners made is to:

By 2010, correct the nutrient‑ and sediment‑related problems in the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries sufficiently to remove the Bay and the tidal portions of its tributaries from the list of impaired waters under the Clean Water Act.

Section 2: What Do We Want to Achieve

impaired waters and clean up plans
Impaired Waters and Clean-up Plans

Chesapeake Bay and Tidal Tributary

Nutrient and/or Sediment Impaired Waterbodies

Portions of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal rivers are listed under the Clean Water Act as “impaired waters” largely because of low dissolved oxygen levels and other problems related to nutrient pollution.

This “listing” requires the development of a clean-up plan for the Bay by 2011.

Note: Representation of 303(d) listed waters for nutrient and/or sediment water quality impairments for illustrative purposes only. For exact 303(d) listings contact EPA (http://www.epa.gov/owow/tmdl/).

Impaired Water

Unimpaired Water

Section 2: What Do We Want to Achieve

watershed wide pollution reductions needed
Watershed-wide Pollution Reductions Needed

The pollutants causing water quality impairments drain into to the Bayand its rivers fromthe entire watershed.

New York

Pennsylvania

Maryland

Delaware

West Virginia

Chesapeake Bay Watershed Boundary

District of Columbia

Virginia

Section 2: What Do We Want to Achieve

advantages of cooperative clean up plans
Advantages of Cooperative Clean-up Plans
  • Bay partners committed to remove Chesapeake water quality impairments by 2010, which allows state and local partners more flexibility in crafting cooperative, efficient and cost effective clean-up plans.
  • If the partners are not successful in meeting their 2010 commitment to remove the Bay from the impaired waters list, only then will a regulatory clean-up plan for all impaired tidal waters be required.

Section 2: What Do We Want to Achieve

what s different about the approach being taken
What’s Different About the Approach Being Taken?
  • We are taking a cooperative, non-regulatory approach over the next decade.
  • New York, Delaware and West Virginia are now directly involved (in addition to MD, PA, VA and DC)
  • Water quality needs of the aquatic living resources of the Bay and its tidal rivers will drive necessary pollutant loading reductions.

Section 2: What Do We Want to Achieve

how might the bay and its tidal rivers look with restored water quality
How Might the Bay and its Tidal Rivers Look with Restored Water Quality?

The Honorable Bernie Fowler wades into the Patuxent River every year to test water clarity. One year he hopes to wade out up to his shoulders and still see his white sneakers.

Section 3: How Might the Bay Look?

restored water quality means
Restored Water Quality Means:
  • Fewer algae blooms and better fish food.
  • Clearer water and more underwater Bay grasses.
  • More oxygen and improved habitat for more fish, crabs and oysters.

Section 3: How Might the Bay Look?

healthy vs unhealthy water quality
Healthy vs. Unhealthy Water Quality

Sunlight

Sunlight

Minimal Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sediment Inputs

Excessive Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sediment Inputs

Algal Bloom

Balanced

Algae Growth

Healthy

Bay Grasses

Reduced

Bay Grasses

Healthy

Habitat

Unhealthy

Habitat

Algae Die-off

Algae Decomposition

Healthy

Oyster Reef

Adequate

Oxygen

No Oxygen

Barren Oyster Reef

Lack of Benthic Community

Benthic Community

Section 3: How Might the Bay Look?

how far have we come
How Far Have We Come?

The Bay and its rivers are doing better but we have a long way to go.

Section 4: How Far Have We Come?

bay grasses show annual variation
Bay Grasses Show Annual Variation

Restoration Goal (185,000 acres by 2010)

Underwater bay grasses are slowly improving, but further reductions in the pollutants flowing into the Bay are needed to help them flourish.

Annual variations in bay grasses show the sensitivity of the Bay ecosystem.

*Note – Hatched area of bar includes estimated additional acreage. No Baywide surveys 1979-83 and 1988

Source: Chesapeake Bay Program.

Section 4: How Far Have We Come?

some waters still not clear enough for bay grasses
Some Waters Still Not Clear Enough for Bay Grasses

All plants--even those underwater--need light!

Water clarity is a measure of the amount of sunlight that penetrates the Bay’s waters and reaches the surface of underwater Bay grass leaves.

The amount needed is determined by the specific underwater grasses which grow in different areas of the Bay.

Increases in sediment and nutrient concentrations in the water lead to declines in water clarity.

Improved water clarity is important for Bay grass recovery and other living resources.

Source: Chesapeake Bay Program. Status and trends are for surface waters during the relevant SAV growing season.

Section 4: How Far Have We Come?

some waters still have too much algae
Some Waters Still Have Too Much Algae

Chlorophyll a is a measure of the amount of algae in the water.

Excessive nutrients can stimulate algae blooms resulting in reduced water clarity.

Section 4: How Far Have We Come?

many water habitats still lack sufficient oxygen
Many Water Habitats Still Lack Sufficient Oxygen

Excessive nutrients can stimulate algae blooms resulting in reduced oxygen levels in the water.

Stressful dissolved oxygen conditions occur during summer months throughout much of the deeper waters of the mainstem Bay and up into the Patapsco, Chester, Patuxent, Potomac, Rappahannock, and York Rivers, and Eastern Bay.

Section 4: How Far Have We Come?

how do we define restored water quality
How Do We DefineRestored Water Quality?
  • Map out the “designated uses” (habitat zones) for the Bay’s different living resource communities.
  • Determine the water quality conditions or “criteria” necessary to protect those “uses”.

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

designated uses of bay and tidal river waters
Designated Uses of Bay and Tidal River Waters

The needs of the Bay’s living resources dictate what the uses (habitat zones) should be:

  • Migratory Fish Spawning and Nursery Use
  • Shallow-Water Bay Grass Use
  • Open-Water Fish and Shellfish Use
  • Deep-Water Seasonal Fish and Shellfish Use
  • Deep-Channel Seasonal Refuge Use

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

refined designated uses for chesapeake bay and tidal tributary waters
Refined Designated Uses forChesapeake Bay and Tidal Tributary Waters

A. Cross Section of Chesapeake Bay or Tidal Tributary

Shallow-Water

Bay Grass Use

Open-Water

Fish and Shellfish Use

Deep-Water

Seasonal Fish and

Shellfish Use

Deep-Channel

Seasonal Refuge Use

B. Oblique View of the “Chesapeake Bay” and its Tidal Tributaries

Migratory Fish

Spawning and

Nursery Use

Open-Water

Habitat

Shallow-Water

Bay Grass Use

Deep-Water

Seasonal Fish and

Shellfish Use

Deep-Channel Seasonal Refuge Use

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

migratory fish spawning and nursery use
Migratory Fish Spawning and Nursery Use

General Description of Designated Use:

  • Aims to protect migratory and resident tidal freshwater fish during the spawning and nursery season in tidal freshwater to low-salinity habitats.
  • Critical time period is late winter to late spring (February through May).

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

migratory fish spawning and nursery use31
Migratory Fish Spawning and Nursery Use

The upper reaches of tidal waters and the upper mainstem used as spawning and nursery grounds by striped bass, shad, perch and other fish.

Spawning and Nursery Habitat

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

shallow water bay grass use
Shallow-Water Bay Grass Use

General Description of Designated Use:

  • Designed to protect underwater bay grasses and the many fish and crab species that depend on the vegetated habitat provided by grass beds.
  • Critical timeframe is the bay grass growing season.

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

shallow water bay grass use33
Shallow-Water Bay Grass Use

Shallow Water Habitat

Tidal waters up to two meters in depth where underwater bay grasses have been historically observed.

Two Meter Bathymetry Contour

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

open water fish and shellfish use
Open-Water Fish and Shellfish Use

General Description of Designated Use:

  • Designed to improve water quality in the surface water habitats within tidal creeks, rivers, embayments and the mainstem Bay.
  • Aims to protect diverse populations of sportfish including striped bass, bluefish, mackerel and sea trout as well as important bait fish such as menhaden and silversides.

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

open water fish and shellfish use35
Open-Water Fish and Shellfish Use

All surface tidal waters extending to the bottom, or to the top of the pycnocline* in areas where it exists and presents a barrier to re-oxygenation of deeper waters.

Open Water Habitat

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

deep water seasonal fish and shellfish use
Deep-Water Seasonal Fish and Shellfish Use

General Description of Designated Use:

  • Aims to protect living resources inhabiting the deeper transitional water column and bottom habitats between the well-mixed surface waters and the very deep channels.
  • Protects many bottom-feeding fish, crabs and oysters, as well as other important species, including the bay anchovy.
  • Critical timeframe is June through September.

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

deep water seasonal fish and shellfish use37
Deep-Water Seasonal Fish and Shellfish Use

Tidal waters within the pycnocline* where it presents a barrier to re-oxygenation of deeper waters.

Deep Water

* Pycnocline marks a density change in the water column due to a transition from the warm, fresher water layer on the surface to the relatively cold, saltier water at the Bay’s bottom.

Deep Water

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

deep channel seasonal refuge use
Deep-Channel Seasonal Refuge Use

General Description of Designated Use:

  • Designed to protect bottom sediment dwelling worms and small clams that act as food for bottom-feeding fish and crabs in the deep channel habitats.

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

deep channel seasonal refuge use39
Deep-Channel Seasonal Refuge Use

Very deep water and adjacent bottom sediment located in the channels below the pycnocline at the lower reaches of major tidal rivers and along the spine of the upper and middle mainstem Bay.

Deep Channel

Deep Channel

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

chesapeake bay water quality criteria
Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Criteria
  • Water Clarity – light for underwater Bay grasses
  • Chlorophyll a – base of the Bay food chain
  • Dissolved Oxygen – for fish, crabs and oysters

Together, these three criteria define the conditions necessary to protect the wide variety of the Bay’s living resources and their habitats.

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

water clarity
Water Clarity
  • All plants--even those underwater--need light!
  • Water clarity is a measure of the amount of sunlight that penetrates the Bay’s waters and reaches the surface of underwater Bay grass leaves.
  • The amount needed is determined by the specific underwater grasses which grow in different areas of the Bay.

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

what s blocking the light
What’s Blocking the Light?

Good Water Clarity

Poor Water Clarity

  • Percent of sunlight at the water surface that penetrates the water:
  • 13% in low salinity waters
  • 22% in high salinity waters

Sediment and other particles in the water

+

Algae in the water

+

Algae on the leaves

equals

Very low percentage of sunlight reaching leaves – Bay grasses grow poorly or die.

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

chlorophyll a
Chlorophyll a
  • Chlorophyll a is a measure of the amount of algae in the water.
  • Some algae are good sources of fish food and others are poor sources.
  • Excessive nutrients can stimulate nuisance algae blooms resulting in reduced water clarity, reduced amounts of “good fish food”, and depleted oxygen levels in deeper waters.

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

dissolved oxygen
Dissolved Oxygen
  • Living things--even those underwater--need oxygen!
  • The amount of oxygen needed in the water depends on the specific needs of the Bay’s living resources.
  • The amounts depend on where and when certain areas are used by different living resources.

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

oxygen requirements mg l of bay species
Oxygen Requirements (mg/L) of Bay Species

Migratory Fish Spawning & Nursery Areas

6

Striped Bass: 5-6

American Shad: 5

Shallow and Open Water Areas

5

White Perch: 5

Yellow Perch: 5

4

Hard Clams: 5

Deep Water

Alewife: 3.6

3

Bay Anchovy: 3

Crabs: 3

2

1

Spot: 2

Deep Channel

Worms: 1

0

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

slide46

Chesapeake Bay Criteria Needed for Protection of the Refined Tidal Waters Designated Uses

Dissolved Oxygen

Chlorophyll a

Water Clarity

Migratory Spawning and Nursery

Shallow Water

Open Water

Deep Water

Deep Channel

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

chesapeake bay water quality criteria47
Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Criteria

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

chesapeake bay narrative criteria for chlorophyll a
Chesapeake Bay NarrativeCriteria for Chlorophyll a

Concentrations of chlorophyll a in free-floating aquatic plants (algae) shall not exceed levels that result in ecologically undesirable consequences – such as reduced water clarity, low dissolved oxygen, food supply imbalances, proliferation of species deemed potentially harmful to aquatic life or humans or aesthetically objectionable conditions – or otherwise render tidal waters unsuitable for designated uses.

Section 5: How Do We Define Restored Water Quality?

what needs to be done
What needs to be done?

Now that restored water quality has been defined, what actions will need to be taken to remove the Bay and its rivers from the impaired waters list by 2010?

Section 6: What Needs to Be Done?

adopting water quality standards
Adopting Water Quality Standards
  • The Bay watershed partners are working to establish new state water quality standards that will more realistically reflect the needs of fish and other aquatic life.
  • Using the recently defined water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources (criteria and designated uses), jurisdictions with tidal waters – DE, MD, VA, and DC – will make their best efforts to adopt new or revised water quality standards consistent with the necessary water quality conditions.

Delaware

Maryland

Virginia

District of Columbia

Section 6: What Needs to Be Done?

reduce nutrient pollution loads
Reduce Nutrient Pollution Loads

In order to achieve the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources, certain amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus reductions need to occur.

…we improve water quality conditions.

As we reducenutrient loads...

Section 6: What Needs to Be Done?

reduce sediment pollution loads
Reduce Sediment Pollution Loads

In order to achieve the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources, certain amounts of sediment reductions need to occur.

…we increase underwater bay grasses.

As we reduce sediment loads...

Section 6: What Needs to Be Done?

nutrient and sediment load reduction goals

2010

Nitrogen

Goal

2010

Phosphorus

Goal

2010 Sediment

Goal

Nutrient and Sediment Load Reduction Goals

The 2010 pollutant reduction goals are:

Nitrogen - Reduce annual loads to no more than 175 million pounds.

Phosphorus - Reduce annual loads to no more than 12.8 million pounds.

Land-based Sediment - Reduce annual loads to no more than 4.15 million tons.

Source: CBP Phase 4.3 Watershed Model. Estimates of nutrient and land-based sediment reductions that may occur when the reported management practices and reduction technologies are implemented within watershed portions of NY, PA, MD, DC, DE, WV, VA. The model's nonpoint source load reductions are estimates of what would occur under long-term avergaed rainfall conditions based on the years 1985-1994. The point source load reductions are actual measurements and are influenced by the reporting year’s rainfall.

Section 6: What Needs to Be Done?

pollutant load allocations for the bay s nine major basins
Pollutant Load Allocations For the Bay’s Nine Major Basins

Susquehanna

  • The pollutant reductions need to occur throughout the entire watershed.
  • Each of the 9 major watershed basins have been allocated maximum loadsor “caps”.

Upper Western Shore

Potomac

Pax

Upper Eastern Shore

Rapp

York

James

VA Eastern Shore

Section 6: What Needs to Be Done?

pollutant load allocations for each state in the bay s nine major basins
Pollutant Load Allocations For Each State in the Bay’s Nine Major Basins

New York

  • Further allocations have been made to each jurisdiction within the 9 major watershed basins.

Pennsylvania

Maryland

District of Columbia

West Virginia

Delaware

Virginia

Section 6: What Needs to Be Done?

developing and implementing strategies
Developing and Implementing Strategies
  • Tributary strategies will be developed to achieve and maintain the allocated nutrient and sediment pollutant loading caps in each basin.
  • The strategies will be developed in each jurisdiction with extensive local government and public involvement.
  • Achieving the reductions and maintaining the loading caps will result in the achievement of the water quality conditions needed for aquatic living resources.

Section 6: What Needs to Be Done?

inclusive and innovative strategies
Inclusive and Innovative Strategies
  • Strategies will need to involve everyone as personal responsibility and life style change may become components.
  • Strategies will encompass complete watersheds.
  • Strategies may include new ideas/new technologies (BNR to 3mg/L; nutrient trading; more wetlands, forest buffers, oyster reefs; innovative management of filter feeders; low impact development).

Section 6: What Needs to Be Done?

who is involved what is the timeline
Who is involved? What is the timeline?

We are all a part of the problem –

All of us need to become part of the solution.

Section 7: Who? When?

slide59
Timeline for Publishing Criteria, Adopting Standards, Setting Allocations and Implementing Tributary Strategies
  • April 2003 - Bay water quality criteria and recommended designated uses published; pollutant load allocations for each jurisdiction within the 9 major basins proposed; begin development of tributary strategies to achieve pollutant load reductions.
  • July 2003 - jurisdictions with tidal waters propose new or revised water quality standards.
  • April 2004 - complete development and begin implementation of revised Tributary Strategies.
  • 2005 - jurisdictions with tidal waters finalize adoption of new or revised water quality standards; pollutant load allocations for each jurisdiction within the 9 major basins finalized; Tributary Strategies finalized.

Section 7: Who? When?

timeline for removing impairments to bay and river water quality
Timeline for Removing Impairments toBay and River Water Quality
  • 2010 – The Chesapeake 2000 agreement calls for Bay Program partners to have corrected the nutrient and sediment-related problems in the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries sufficiently to remove the Bay and the tidal portions of its tributaries from the list of impaired waters under the Clean Water Act.
  • 2011 – Bay Program partners will begin development of TMDLs for any areas of the Bay that may still be listed for impairments due to nutrient and sediment related problems.

Section 7: Who? When?

who s involved
Who’s involved?
  • Bay Program partners in this effort include the signatories to the Chesapeake Bay agreement -- EPA (representing the Federal government), the jurisdictions of MD, PA, VA and DC, and the Chesapeake Bay Commission (representing MD, PA and VA state legislatures).
  • The partnership for this effort was expanded through a Memorandum of Understanding to include the jurisdictions of DE, NY and WV.

District of Columbia

EPA

CBC

Maryland

Pennsylvania

Virginia

Delaware

New York

West Virginia

Section 7: Who? When?

who needs to be involved
Who Needs to be Involved?
  • Local governments and citizens and…
  • YOU need to become informed and get involved:
  • Participate in restoration and protection efforts.
  • Hold Bay Program partners accountable!

We are all a part of the problem –

All of us need to become part of the solution.

WE ARE ALL IN THIS TOGETHER

Section 7: Who? When?

key opportunities for citizen involvement
Key Opportunities for Citizen Involvement
  • 2003 - 2005 – participate in the state water quality standards development process
  • 2003 - 2004 – get involved with teams developing tributary strategies
  • From now until 2010 – stay informed and involved and…hold Bay Program partners accountable!

Section 7: Who? When?

how will other bay agreement commitments help restore the complete ecosystem
How Will Other Bay Agreement Commitments Help Restore the Complete Ecosystem?

We must encourage all citizens of the Chesapeake Bay watershed to work toward a shared vision – a system with abundant, diverse populations of living resources, fed by healthy streams and rivers, sustaining strong local and regional economies, and our unique quality of life.

Section 8: Restoring the Complete Ecosystem

additional water quality restoration efforts

Status of Chemical Contaminant Effectson Living Resources in the Bay’s Tidal Rivers

Additional Water Quality Restoration Efforts

The Chesapeake 2000 agreement also commits to reduce or eliminate chemical contaminants to levels that result in no toxic or bioaccumulative impact on living resources that inhabit the Bay or on human health.

Many of the efforts necessary to reach the chemical contaminant reduction goal will also help to reach the nutrient and sediment reduction goals (and vice versa).

Section 8: Restoring the Complete Ecosystem

water quality improvements alone will not restore the bay
Water Quality Improvements Alone Will Not “Restore the Bay”

If we do not manage fisheries, no matter how clean the water becomes, we still may not have sustainable populations.

Section 8: Restoring the Complete Ecosystem

water quality improvements and fisheries management are still not enough
Water Quality Improvements and Fisheries Management Are Still Not Enough

We need to protect and restore all habitats, not just water habitats.

Section 8: Restoring the Complete Ecosystem

slide68
Water Quality Improvements,Fisheries Management and Habitat Protection and Restoration Are Still Not Enough

We need to manage the way we use the land in watersheds.

Section 8: Restoring the Complete Ecosystem

slide69
Water Quality Improvements, Fisheries Management, Habitat Protection and Restoration, and Sound Land Useare Still Not Enough

We need to engage everyone to become better stewards of the watershed.

Section 8: Restoring the Complete Ecosystem

only by integrating all components of chesapeake 2000 can we expect to restore the bay
Only By Integrating ALL Components of Chesapeake 2000 Can We Expect toRestore the Bay

The agreement reflects the Bay’s complexity in that each action taken, like the elements of the Bay itself, is connected to all the others.

Section 8: Restoring the Complete Ecosystem