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Unit 3: Poetry. Structure and Form. Poetry lifts the veil from the hidden beauty of the world, and makes familiar objects be as if they were not familiar. —Percy Bysshe Shelley. <skip intro>. What is poetry?.

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unit 3 poetry

Unit 3: Poetry

Structure and Form

slide2
Poetry lifts the veil from the hidden beauty of the world, and makes familiar objects be as if they were not familiar.
  • —Percy Bysshe Shelley

<skip intro>

what is poetry
What is poetry?
  • Poetry is a genre, or type of literature, that uses imaginative and musical language to communicate experiences, thoughts, or emotions.
how are poetry and prose similar
How are poetry and prose similar?
  • Both use imagery and figurative language to paint a picture for readers.
  • Both use precise language to communicate a tone, viewpoint, or perception of an object or experience.
how are poetry and prose different
How are poetry and prose different?
  • Poetry reduces meaning into fewer words.
  • Poetry often uses meter, rhyme, line, and stanzas.
  • Poetry allows more freedom in the ordering of words and the use of punctuation.
who are your favorite poets
Who are your favorite poets?
  • Maya Angelou
  • Carl Sandburg
  • Langston Hughes
  • Emily Dickinson
  • Robert Frost
  • Walt Whitman
  • Pat Mora
  • Naomi Shihab Nye
what are your favorite types of poems
Lyric poems

Narrative poems

Limericks

Haiku

Sonnets

Romantic poems

Concrete or shape poems

Free verse

Epic poems

Odes

Elegies

What are your favorite types of poems?
what are the purposes of poetry
What are the purposes of poetry?
  • To entertain readers
  • To enlighten readers by sharing the human experience
  • To help readers gain insight into themselves and others
  • To help readers experience joy, inspiration, comfort, gratitude, redemption, or strength
  • To unite readers in a common understanding
the art of poetry
The Art of Poetry
  • Poetry is one of the world’s oldest art forms.
  • Poetry has survived the centuries because of its ability to convey emotions and images.
the rising popularity of poetry
The Rising Popularity of Poetry
  • Poetry
    • is a powerful and expressive art form that is popular among young people
    • can be viewed on socialnetworking sites, blogs, andother websites
    • can be heard in classrooms,transit stations, bookstores, coffeehouses, clubs, films, TVshows, and other public areas
slide11
How can the structure and form of a poem provide clues about the author’s purpose in creating it?

Poetry isn’t written from the idea down. It’s written from the phrase, line and stanza up….

—Margaret Atwood

structures and forms of poetry
Structures and Forms of Poetry
  • When composing a poem, a poet explores various poetic structures and forms to express his or her ideas.
  • Some poets conform to formal conventions of poetry, such as the use of stanzas, meter, and rhyme schemes.
  • Others choose to write freely without the constraints of established text structures or line patterns.
structures and forms of poetry1
Structures and Forms of Poetry
  • No matter what format a poet chooses, it is important for readers to recognize the structures and forms of poetry.
    • This helps them to understand the author’s intention and appreciate the interplay of words.
stanzas in poetry
Stanzas in Poetry
  • The text organization of poetry distinguishes it from prose.
  • Stories and essays are divided into paragraphs, but poems are often divided into stanzas, or groups of lines.
  • Like a paragraph in prose, each stanza in a poem
    • may vary in length
    • typically conveys a unit of thought
purposes of stanzas in poetry
Purposes of Stanzas in Poetry
  • Stanzas serve many purposes in poetry. For example, stanzas may
    • provide a framework or structure for a poem
    • create a visual effect for readers
    • set the rhythm of a poem by following a certain organizational pattern
    • establish a flow or movement through the poem’s ideas
    • provide clues as to the author’s purpose
types of stanzas
Types of Stanzas
  • There are several types of stanzas that a poet can use when creating a poem.
  • The type of stanza is determined by the number of lines.
  • Common stanza structures are listed in the box.
stanza type octave
Stanza Type: Octave
  • This stanza from “Dream Variations” is an example of an octave.

To fling my arms wide

In the face of the sun,

Dance! Whirl! Whirl!

Till the quick day is done.

Rest at pale evening…

A tall, slim tree…

Night coming tenderly

Black like me.

—from “Dream Variations,”

by Langston Hughes

stanza breaks
Stanza Breaks
  • The blank spaces between stanzas are called stanza breaks.
  • Typically, a stanza break is a pause that indicates the completion of the previous thought and the beginning of a new one.
enjambment
Enjambment
  • However, when a poet decides to jump over the stanza break and continue a thought into the next stanza, it is known as enjambment.
  • Enjambment can also be used between lines of poetry, when a thought started in one line flows over into the next line.
tanka
Tanka
  • A tanka is a traditional Japanese poem consisting of five lines.
    • The first and third lines have five syllables.
    • The other lines have seven syllables.
    • Each tanka has a total of thirty-one syllables.
  • Tanka use only a few words to express a complex idea.
tanka1
Tanka
  • What complex idea is expressed in this tanka by Okamoto Kanoko?

if I were to stand

with roots in the ground

like a flower

would my life bloom out

in the color I was born with?

ballad
Ballad
  • Like tanka, ballads are written using a specific type of stanza.
  • A ballad is a poem that tells a story.
  • Ballads are written in quatrains or sestets.
  • Because ballads were originally meant to be sung, they typically have regular rhythms and rhyme schemes (usually abcb).
    • They also feature a refrain, or repetition of lines.
sonnet
Sonnet
  • Sonnets are another type of poem that follow a specific stanza pattern.
  • A sonnet is a fourteen-line poem written in iambic pentameter.
    • Iambic pentameter means that the lines are formed using five iambs.
      • An iamb is an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable, such as in the word refrain.
  • A sonnet can follow a number of different rhyme schemes.
types of sonnets
Types of Sonnets
  • There are two main types of sonnets:
    • the Shakespearean sonnet (also known as the Elizabethan or English sonnet)

and

    • the Petrarchan sonnet (also known as the Italian sonnet).
shakespearean sonnet
Shakespearean Sonnet
  • The Shakespearean sonnet is divided into four parts:
    • three quatrains (four-line stanzas)

and

    • a final couplet (two-line stanza).
  • The rhyme scheme of a Shakespearean sonnet is abab cdcd efef gg.
petrarchan sonnet
Petrarchan Sonnet
  • The Petrarchan sonnet is divided into two parts:
    • an octave (eight-line stanza)

and

    • a sestet (six-line stanza).
  • The rhyme scheme for a Petrarchan sonnet is abbaabba cdecde (or cdedce or cdcdcd).
forms of poetry
Forms of Poetry
  • It is important for readers to be familiar with the various forms of poetry.
  • Poets choose particular poetic forms to suit their content. Common poetic forms are listed in the box.
narrative poem
Narrative Poem
  • A narrative poem is a poem that tells a story.
  • “Ex-Basketball Player” narrates the life of Flick Webb, a talented high school basketball player.

Once Flick played for the high-school team, the Wizards.

He was good: in fact, the best. In ’46

He bucketed three hundred ninety points,

A county record still. The ball loved Flick.

I saw him rack up thirty-eight or forty

In one home game. His hands were like wild birds.

—from “Ex-Basketball Player,”

by John Updike

dramatic poem
Dramatic Poem
  • A special type of narrative poem is the dramatic poem.
  • A dramatic poem relies on elements of drama, such as monologue or dialogue, to tell the story.
lyric poem
Lyric Poem
  • A lyric poem is a poem that expresses the emotions of a speaker in a musical style.
  • A common type of lyricpoetry is free verse—poetry that is free fromregular rhyme, meter, orstanza division.
lyric poem1
Lyric Poem
  • “I am Offering This Poem” is an example of a free-verse lyric poem.

I am offering this poem to you,

Since I have nothing else to give.

Keep it like a warm coat

When winter comes to cover you,

Or like a pair of thick socks

The cold cannot bite through,

I love you,

—from “I Am Offering this Poem,”

by Jimmy Santiago Baca

blank verse
Blank Verse
  • Blank verse is unrhymed poetry written in iambic pentameter.
  • Shakespeare used blank verse in his plays.
  • Both sonnets and blank verse are written in iambic pentameter, but only sonnets follow a set rhyme scheme.
prose poem
Prose Poem
  • Some passages of prose make such extensive use of poetic language that the line between prose and poetry is blurred.
  • These passages are called prose poems.
  • “Holidays” is an example of a prose poem.

I sit on the porch facing the mountains. The porch is airy and spacious. I am the only person sitting on the porch. I look at myself. I can see myself.

—from “Holidays,”

by Jamaica Kincaid

ode and elegy
Ode and Elegy
  • Two other poetic forms are based on the purpose of the poem.
  • An ode is a poem to honor or praise someone or something.
  • An elegy can usually be recognized by its formal tone that laments the death of someone.
summary structure and form
SUMMARY: Structure and Form
  • To analyze a poem’s structure and form, ask:
    • What is the text organization of the poem?
    • Does the poem use rhyme?
      • What is the rhyme scheme?
    • What is the content of the poem?
      • Is the poem telling a story, expressing an emotion, or presenting an image?
    • How would I describe the poem’s style and tone?
      • Is the poem musical or narrative?
      • What tone is conveyed through the poet’s diction?