Psychology Unit 3 Area of Study 1 Mind, Brain & Body Area of Study 2 Memory
CONSCIOUSNESS AS A PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSTRUCT INFORMED BY THE WORK OF RENE DESCARTES AND WILLIAM JAMES Consciousness is a concept that is “constructed” to describe specific “psychological” activity or patterns of activity that is believed to occur or exist but cannot be directly observed or measured. What psychologists know about consciousness can only be assumed from what we can measure or gather from peoples information
Described by William James in 1890 as a – “stream of consciouness” • Described Consciousness as - A never- ending flow of thoughts feelings and emotions • An awareness of objects & events in the external world • An awareness of our existence & mental processes at any given time • Personal (subjective) • Selective (depending on attention) • Changing (contents blend into one another) • Continuous (moving from thought to thought)
Unit 3 the conscious self • “I think, therefore I am”. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Descartes (day –cart) argued that consciousness isaxiomaticbecause you cannot logically deny your minds existence at the same time as using your mind to do the denying. • He became the father of the mind/body theory of interactionism. • He stated that there is a dualism of mind and body, and they influence each other. • The brain is the major locus for the mind or consciousness of the soul, yet mind or consciousness is distributed throughout the whole body. • See handout page 872 – R Gross.
Some Psychologists, biologists etc.. Take the view that: • The mind ( or consciousness) is real, it is the property of human beings along with having a body and brain. • Without the human brain there would be no consciousness – the two seem to have evolved together. • Descartes stated that: • the mind has its own separate existence from the body • the mind has powers to control the body & behaviour (through operation of the pineal gland in the brain), whereas the body cannot influence the mind
Levels of Awareness • Place the following levels of awareness in the correct order TOTAL AWARENESS Unconscious (coma) Anaesthetised Focussed attention Sleep Day dreaming Hypnosis Meditation COMPLETE LACK OF AWARENESS
Answer: TOTAL AWARENESS Focussed attention Daydreaming Meditation Hypnosis Sleep Anaesthetised Unconscious (Coma) Complete Lack of Awareness
CONCEPTS OF NORMAL WAKING CONSCIOUSNESS & ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS, INCLUDING DAYDREAMING, MEDITATIVE & ALCOHOL INDUCED, IN TERMS OF LEVELS OF AWARENESS, CONTENT LIMITATIONS, CONTROLLED & AUTOMATIC PROCESSES, PERCEPTUAL & COGNITIVE DISTORTIONS, EMOTIONAL AWARENESS, SELF –CONTROL & TIME ORIENTATION. Normal Waking Consciousness (NWC)Organised, meaningful, clear,aware of our thoughts, memories, sensations perceived as real and marked by afamiliar sense of time & place. Eg (Here & now!!) Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) Distinct change in the quality and pattern of mental activity. Shift in emotions, perceptions, memories, time sense, thinking, Feelings of self control and suggestibility. eg: day dreaming, sleep, dreaming, “stoned” drugs, “smashed” (drunk) etc……….
How to remember the characteristics of NWC: NWC - “CACA” CONTENT, ATTENTION (SELECTIVE & DIVIDED), CONTROLLED & AUTOMATIC PROCESSES, AWARENESS Content in NWC During NWC our thoughts are controlled & limited to reality The content of thoughts is usually – logical & well organised We are usually able to control our thinking & do not think bizarre thoughts in NWC. During NWC the brain is actively storing information & retrieving Information from memory to use.
Levels of Attention in NWC actionsthat require high levels of attention, alertness and concentration to achieve a goal. Attention: involves focusing on specific stimuli & ignoring others Attention is like a spot light being moved around, or switched Like T.V. channels. 1. Selective Attention At any given moment, the focus of our attention is only a Limited range of all that we are capable of experiencing. If a situation is PERSONALLY important to us then we are more likely to pay attention to it. Eg Cocktail party effect: ability to attend to one person’s speech among competing conversations ( and being able to eaves drop by switching attention). 2. Divided Attention Refers to our ability to share our attention between two activities Eg. Doing the dishes, cooking and listening to the TV at once.
Controlled and Automatic processes in NWC Controlled Processes:made of fully conscious actions that require high levels of attention, alertness concentration to achieve a goal Eg: learning to drive a car, a manual car in various weather Automatic Processes. -Needs little conscious awareness & effort, minimal attention. Does not interfere with the performance of other activities. • Are used when an activitiy is easy or familiar • Stroop Effect: takes longer to name the colour of the ink in which a word is printed if the word spells the name of a different colour than it does to identify a block of colour • Ie YELLOW PURPLE GREEN
Awareness in NWC How to remember the characteristics of ASC: • ASC - “PEST” • PERCEPTION & COGNITION DISTORTIONS • EMOTIONAL AWARENESS • SELF CONTROL • TIME ORIENTATION • We perceive the world as real • familiar sense of time and place
PERCEPTION & COGNITION DISTORTIONS In an ASC we become either more receptive or less receptive to external stimuli to the point where some stimuli may not be experienced at all i.e. our perception becomes distorted. e.g. pain medication: analgesics like codeine or morphine ease pain drugs: alcohol, heroin, marijuana or amphetamines cause colour, taste, smell may become more sensitive and they dull or minimise sensation of pain meditation: tolerance or pain increased e.g. Swamis – lying on bed of nails People may lose sense of identity; feel they are someone else or that they are ‘outside themselves looking in’. Cognitive functioning (information processing) also becomes distorted during an ASC. e.g. disorganised thoughts, illogical thinking, difficulty solving problems & remembering events during an ASC.
CHANGES IN EMOTIONAL FEELING Being in an ASC sometimes puts an individual’s feelings into a state of turmoil resulting in uncharacteristic responses. e.g. alcohol - causes some people to become more openly emotional, amorous or aggressivewhen under the influence. CHANGES IN SELF CONTROL Changes in the ability to maintain self control are often evident during ASC. e.g. stumbling. controlling/coordinating movements etc. - less able to control anger or affection - hypnosis may help some people gain control over gambling/smoking
DISTURBED SENSE OF TIME • Estimation of time is frequently distorted when in an ASC. Time seems to pass at a different speed • E.g. a 15 min nap may seem longer than an hour. • A full sleep may seem shorter than usual.When drunk or affected by drugs our sense of time may be lost.
Daydreaming: - ASC where we shift our attention from External stimuli Internal thoughts feelings imagined scenarios Daydreams can be: • Fantasies • Planning for the future • Rehearsing important conversations • Reliving past events • Anticipating future events • They are not constrained by the bounds of logic or reality • They occur naturally often without being aware of it. -
When does daydreaming occur ? - Stationary, maybe because it is at these times that our active behaviour & directed attention are ‘ turned off”. • It is more likey to occur when we are alone or doing boring activities. Our consciousness may be turning inward to focus on more interesting thoughts and images. Why does day dreaming occur? Freud suggested that it Allows us to do in our fantasies what we are unable to do in reality. We reduce the frustration & tension we would otherwise have experienced as a result of unfulfilled needs and wishes.
What type of brain waves & eye movement patterns would you expect tosee? Which sleep stage would it be like? - Minimal eye movements - Alpha brain waves • Associated with NREM 1 stage • What have some Psychologists suggested the purpose of DAYDREAMING to be ? • try out ranges of courses of action to certain situations • Help us solve problems • allow us to stay mentally alert in certain situations
Meditative State: • Induced intentionally through meditation techniques – eg: yoga, Zen etc. • Alters normal waking consciousness to induce an ASC • Completely clears the mind of any thoughts Produces: • Deep state of relaxation • Heightened state of personal awareness • Feelings of inner peace and tranquility
How to meditate.......... 1. Sit in a comfortable position with eyes closed • Focus your attention selectively on a stimulus ie: your thumb a word or your breathing • Focus on this over & over again.
Alcohol - induced State: Alcohol – is a psychoactive drug which changes conscious awareness, moods and perception. - needs no digestion & after it enters the stomach it passes through the intestinal tract to the bloodstream via capillaries. - depressant: lessens inhibition by depressing the activity of the brain centres responsible for judgement & sel control
Many effects of alcohol on consciousness: - impaired -perception of time - thinking - memory - emotional awareness • reduced - self awareness - self control • Slower reaction time • Shortened attention span • Difficulties with voluntary muscular control & movement • Deterioration in performance of complex tasks
METHODS USED TO STUDY THE LEVEL OF ALERTNESS IN NORMAL WAKING CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE STAGES OF SLEEP Measurement of Physiological responses To study people at sleep, special “sleep laboratories” are established with a sound proof bedroom. Patients follow their usual bed time routines and have electrodesattached mostly to their face, scalp and legs that are connected to a polygraph. Measurement of sleep patterns are obtained from: EEG EMG EOG
EEG (electroencephalograph) • detects amplifies and records electrical activity in the brain DARE (brain waves) ALPHA, BETA, DELTA, THETA , that are produced by neurons • the recording on graph paper or computer disc is called an electroencephalogram EMG (electromyograph) • detects, amplifies and records electrical activityDARE of muscles • an electromyogram is produced • EMG recordings show changes in muscle activity & muscle tension. Electrodes are usually placed below the knees
The electromyogram shows muscles relaxing through sleep stages (& shows muscle spasms & hypnic jerks) • Myoclonus – “restless legs” is one cause of insomnia & is shown on the EMG EOG (electro – ocular gram) • measures eye movement by detecting, amplifying & recording electrical activity in the muscles that control eyes. • Mostly used to see the point when a person is in either rapid eye movement REM or non REM sleep.
Measurement of Physiological responses • Heart Rate ECG Measured by ECG (Electrocardiograph) that produces an electrocardiogram. Heart Rate at a particular time can be compared to that when in an ASC e.g. when unconscious/ asleep/ meditating heart rate is lower, & when stimulated by drugs (e.g. “speed”) it is higher. • Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) ASC’s are closely associated with emotional reactions, which are either heightened or reduced. As perspiration increases or decreases there is a change in the conductivity or resistance of the skin to electric current
Body Temperature Less Variable than heart rate/ brain waves/ GSR Body temperature drops markedly during sleep. ( Even though you may wake up feeling warm, your core temperature is at its lowest)
Sleep SLEEP AS AN ALTERED STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS : PURPOSE, CHARACTERISTICS AND PATTERNS OF THE STAGES OF SLEEP INCLUDING RAPID EYE MOVEMENT (REM) & THE NON – RAPID EYE MOVEMENT (NREM) STAGES OF SLEEP Is a periodic state that features the suspension of consciousness • The purpose of sleep………. - RESTORATIVE THEORY Sleep gives our body time to repair damaged cells, detoxify, grow cells - SURVIVAL THEORY Sleep allows an animal to remain in – active & not draw the attention of predators • during a nights sleep we may have 4 or 5 sleep cycles • each cycle lasts about 80 – 100 minutes.
4 Types of Brain Waves • Beta • Alpha • Theta • Delta • BATDSee diagram on page 122 Complete the table below
Stages of Sleep See handout – p 296 sample readings of EOG,EEG & EMG
Hypnogogic State – is the drowsy time between being awake & being asleep.There is slow rolling eye movements, maybe flashes of colour & images • Non REM sleep (NREM) • Non rapid eye movement sleep is characterised by: - less brain activity than NWC & REM sleep - made up of 4 stages, each deeper than the previous - decrease in blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, temp, gradually through the stages. - brain waves decrease in frequency, increase amplitude through the stages
STAGE 1 of NREM sleep • - 5 – 10 Minutes of very light sleep • - Muscles relaxing, hypnic jerks may occur; the body jolts/ twitches • STAGE 2 of NREM sleep • - 20 minutes of light sleep • - Still easily aroused • - brain waves are mainly theta with some sleep spindles (higher • frequency) • - spindles give evidence of sleep
STAGE 3 of NREM sleep • - 30 minutes reducing to nil, moderately deep sleep • - • - Relaxation is nearly complete; little response to external stimuli • - Delta waves begin (slow & large) therefore called slow wave sleep • - Mostly theta waves • STAGE 4 of NREM sleep • 30 minutes reducing to nil, very deep sleep • total relaxation, almost no movement, difficult to wake • mostly delta waves • drowsy upon waking, sleep inertia (disoriented, poor memory of sleep etc) • for some talking in sleep, sleep walking (somnambulism) or night terrors • (children)
REM sleep (Rapid Eye Movement) Very Deep Sleep • eyes move from side to side in rapid movement…..not clear why • most DREAMS occur in REM sleep (80%) • more REM sleep in later cycles e.g. only a few minutes at the start of sleep; • up to one hour at the end. • We are probably dreaming when we wake • - The body is totally relaxed (paralysed) but the mind is very active • (beta waves) Paradoxical sleep –relaxed and active at the same time Being paralysed in REM sleep explains why when we are dreaming sometimes we can’t run away etc…
REM sleep (Rapid Eye Movement) cont……… How would a researcher know when to wake up a sleeper? What ethical considerations should there be?
PURPOSE OF SLEEP How much Sleep do we need ? • Infants: 16 hours a day • Adults: 8 hours a day • Old age: diminishes to 6 – 7 hours Purpose of Sleep? - No definite evidence answer – only theories to suggest why. Restorative theory Survival theory
Restorative theory • Replenishes the body’s store of energy • Damaged cells to be repaired • Muscles are detoxified or rid of waste products, as their action slows down • Growth hormone is secreted at a much higher rate when asleep than when awake • Sleep may have something to do with the recovery process of illness
Purpose of Sleep – Restorative cont’ • NREM sleep stage 3 & 4 - important for physical growth, tissue repair and recovery from the effects of fatigue • REM sleep thought to be involved in brain growth & restoration (role in mental functioning & memory?). This sleep occurs more in the developing fetus & child & may play a part in the peak development of the brain • Also provides “ exercise to groups of neurons” that is important for maintenence of brain circuits • Improved performance on motor skills after REM sleep
REM REBOUND • Is catching up on REM sleep after a period of lost REM sleep by spending more time than usual in REM sleep when next asleep • Important: Evidence that NREM & REM sleep have restorative functions in relation to the body and brain is INCONCLUSIVE as to what is actually restored or repaired during sleep and at no other time. • Survival theory: (or evolutionary, preservation, protection theory) • - protects the sleeper from harm or death & enhances it survival • Sleep evolved to enhance survival by making the organism inactive during the day ( after it has eaten, drank and looked after its young). As it is risky and dangerous for the organism to be moving around. • The organism spends its time during the day sleeping, conserving energy, hidden & protected from predators and not attracting their attention.
Survival theory cont’ : (or evolutionary, preservation, protection theory) • EVIDENCE FOR THIS THEORY: • Animals with few natural predators: eg lions, tigers – sleep 15 hours a day • Animals with many predators: cattle, horses – are safer awake for longer periods sleep for approx 4 hours a day • Why do humans Sleep at night? • According to the survival theory: • We sleep then because we are highly visual animals that need light • We are not well adapted to search for food or protect ourselves in the dark
SLEEP – WAKE CYCLE SHIFTS DURING ADOLESCENCE COMPARED WITH CHILD AND ADULT SLEEP INCLUDING DELAYED ONSET OF SLEEP & THE NEED FOR SLEEP Sleep patterns across the lifespaninfant to old age • Sleep time in NREM and REM changes as we get older • Sleep time in REM decreases from infancy to adulthood infant: • New born: 16 hrs a day – 50% in REM sleep • End of infancy (approx 2yrs): 12-13 hrs – 25-30% in REM • End of childhood ( approx 13yrs) 9hrs – 20% REM • Adolescence (13-19) < 8 hrs – 1/3 in REM sleep • Late Adulthood – 6 -7hrs 1/3 in REM sleep
Sleep – wake cycle in adolescence • Age: 13 – 19 • Sleep time: decrease from 10 to < 8 hrs • This age group tend to have sleep problems because they need more than 9 hrs to function well when awake Sleep Problems: • Not enough sleep during the week • Taking a long time to fall asleep • Difficulty waking in the mornings Affects: - difficulties concentrating in class • Falling asleep in class • Mood swings • difficulty controlling behaviour • Unmotivated to do class work
Limbic System Sleep wake cycle: Bodily functions that go through a full cycle about once every 24 hours is called CIRCADIUM RHYTHMS The sleep – wake cycle is a circadium rhythm. The biological clock that controls the sleep – waking cycle is regulated by the pineal gland, Pineal gland secretes the hormone Melatonin in various quantities at different time of the day. Higher melatonin = greater sleepiness Less melatonin is secreted during the day During night time the pineal gland secretes more melatonin – explains why we are more sleepy at night
Physiologically/biologically driven sleep needs of adolescents • Hormonally induced shift in of a teenagers body clock forward by 1 – 2 hrs - making teenagers sleepier one to two hrs later - effects their ability to fall asleep at earlier times expected of them as a child. - this shift in onset of sleep to one or two hrs longer is called SLEEP PHASE ONSET - sleep loss can accumulate as SLEEP DEBT, that is sleep that is owed and needs to be made up.
Psych & social factors influencing adolescent’s sleep habit - deciding when to go to sleep - going to be later - increased demands for socialising • increased demands to complete schoolwork • Casual or part time jobs - late night hours • Studies showed: more sleep, earlier bed times & later weekday rises are associated with better grades. Read box 3.5 p 152 & correlational studies box 1.9 p48
Sleep Deprivation THE EFFECTS OF TOTAL AND PARTIAL SLEEP DEPRIVATION: • Meaning – missing out on sleep • 11 days (264 hrs) is the world record without sleep • No ill effects once sleep is caught up on but animals do die from sleep deprivation so maybe humans also? • In one study sleep deprived rats typically were unable to maintain a constant body temperature, resulting in excessive heat loss. They eventually died after two to three weeks of no sleep (Rechtschaffen, 1989). - Their immune system also collapsed, resulting in blood poisoning Read article “rested” - & highlight key points & add these points to your notes.
After normal sleep there are no ongoing ill effects. It is difficult to attain total sleep deprivation. Animals including humans have micro – sleeps (very short periods of sleep – seconds) where the individual appears to be awake. TAC advert refers this to “zoning out’’. The EEG pattern resembles that of the early stages of NREM sleep. After a microsleep, which usually lasts for a very brief period of time, individuals may have no recollection of what happened during the microsleep.
THE INTERACTION BETWEEN COGNITIVE PROCESSES OF THE BRAIN AND ITS STRUCTURE INCLUDING --ROLES OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, PNS & ANS NERVOUS SYSTEM CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM CNS Transmits & receives messages to and from the CNS PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM PNS Carries messages to & from the CNS Somatic Nervous system Autonomic Nervous system spinal cord CONNECTS THE BRAIN & PNS brain ORGANISES INTEGRATES INTERPRETS INFORMATION SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM