Psychology Unit 3 Area of Study 1: Brain and Nervous System S. Hopley
Unit 3 Psychology: Overview AREA OF STUDY 1 ASSESSMENT TASKS S/N Work Requirements Glossary – due Wed 24th Feb 15 Revision Questions – due Wed 24th Feb Workbook (Min. 80% complete) – spot checks SAC Annotated poster (with cheat sheet) XX Feb /40 marks • Brain and Nervous System • On completion of this unit the student should be able to explain the major functions of the brain including cortical lobes and hemispheric specialisation, and the role of the nervous system, and evaluate the strengths and limitations of brain research methods.
Unit 3 Psychology: Overview AREA OF STUDY 2 ASSESSMENT TASKS S/N Work Requirements Glossary – due XXX March 25 Revision Questions – due XX March Workbook (Min. 80% complete) – spot checks SAC Mini ERA (Gestalt Principles) XX March, /15 marks Test XX March, /15 marks • Visual Perception • On completion of this unit the student should be able to explain the nature of processes involved in visual perception
Unit 3 Psychology: Overview AREA OF STUDY 3 ASSESSMENT TASKS S/N Work Requirements Glossary – due XXX May 25 Revision Questions – due XX May Workbook (Min. 80% complete) – spot checks SAC Multimedia Presentation XX May /30 marks • States of Consciousness • On completion of this unit the student should be able to compare and contrast characteristics of normal waking consciousness with altered states of consciousness
The human nervous system Chapter 3 (p127) Key Knowledge Divisions of the nervous system: central nervous system, peripheral nervous system (somatic and autonomic) Roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS • The peripheral nervous system • The somatic nervous system • The autonomic nervous system • Division of the ANS
Nervous System Overview • Distribute the Glossary and the Revision Questions • Discussion: • Q: Why is the NS important to Psychology? • It allows us to receive information from the outside world (internal and external) and allows us to respond to it. It therefore controls our behaviour (actions) • It carries stimuli (changes to environment) to our brain – sensory, and then carries messages from our brain – motor, to react to this information. • Q: What are nerves made up of? • Draw and label a motor neuron for revision
Nervous System Overview • Q: What is the basic structure of the nervous system? • Brain storm the basic structure of the NS on the board. Include the CNS, brain, spinal cord, PNS, Somatic (motor and sensory) and Autonomic (Sympathetic and parasympathetic) • Activities: • Life-size Nervous System Man (outline student) • Cut and Paste NS Data Tree
Nervous System Overview • Read pages 127-134 • Notes: • Central Nervous System • Regulates, coordinates and controls all the major functions of the body • Peripheral Nervous System • Links the CNS to other parts of the body. Has two main functions: • 1. carry info from sense organs and internal organs to the CNS • 2. convey info from the CNS to the muscles, organs and glands of body
Nervous System Overview • Somatic NS – controls voluntary movement • Sensory function (sensory/afferent neurons) – transmits info from the sense organs (skin, eyes, etc) to the CNS • Motor function (motor/afferent neurons) – carries response messages from the CNS to skeletal muscles • Autonomic NS – controls involuntary actions of organs, glands and non-skeletal or visceral muscles • Mostly involuntary but can be overridden at times (e.g. blinking, breathing, etc) • Biofeedback: allows us to alter ANS activity once it is physically visible or audible to us (Box 2, page 133) S (sensory) A (afferent) M (motor) E (efferent)
Autonomic Nervous System • Quiz: • 1. What are the 2 main divisions of the NS? • 2. What does the somatic NS control? • 3. What is the difference between afferent and efferent neurons? • 4. What does the autonomic NS control? • 5. What is the role of the spinal cord?
Autonomic Nervous System • Movie: • Bourne Identity (24mins – 40ish) • Discuss student’s reactions • How quickly did heart rate/breathing rate change? • How quickly did it change? • How soon did you realise there was no actual threat? • How long did it take for your body to calm down? • Read pages 135-138 • Worksheet: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic NS
Arousal and stress Chapter 4 Key Knowledge The physiological systems involved in arousal (fight-flight response), uses and limitations of the polygraph Physiological and psychological effects of prolonged or intense arousal, the relationship between stress and disease, the general adaptation syndrome • Fight-flight response • The polygraph • Effects of intense or prolonged arousal • General adaptation syndrome • The relationship between stress and disease
Arousal & Fight or Flight • Quiz: • 1. Which division of the autonomic NS is responsible for preparing the body for action? • 2. Which division of the autonomic NS works faster? • 3. Which body function is inhibited by the sympathetic NS? • 4. What is the function of adrenaline? • 5. Why does the parasympathetic division return the body to homeostatic conditions?
Arousal & Fight or Flight • Read pages 141-143 • Notes: (relate to Bourne Identity) • These systems help determine the level of arousal • Q: What is arousal? • It’s a state of alertness or readiness for action Triggers Causing Which Leading to
Arousal & Fight or Flight • Brainstorm: • What happens to the body when aroused? • Why does the heart beat faster? • To circulate adrenalin and other hormones • Increased energy available to cells (more O2 for respiration) • Why perspire? • Increased body system functioning leads to increased heat production. Body needs to cool down or cook. Perspiration allows rapid dissipation of heat
Arousal & Fight or Flight • Role play: So what do we do when we are aroused if the stressor is persistent and noticed? • 1. Stay home and miss school test • 2. Go to school and take the test • Discuss and define fight-flight response: • An adaptive automatic response to stress that prepares the body to confront (fight) the threat or to run away (flight) to safety • L.A. 1 page 144, Q1-3
Arousal & the Polygraph • Quiz: • 1. Define arousal • 2. What is the purpose of the fight/flight response? • 3. What term describes the thing that causes stress? • 4. What group of hormones are associated with the fight/flight response? • Brainstorm: What do you already know about the polygraph? • Read pages 145-146
Arousal & the Polygraph • Notes: • Polygraph detects and records a number of physiological responses (heart rate, blood pressure) enabling measurements of general arousal. • IT IS NOT ALWAYS A LIE DETECTOR! • When used as a lie detector, it measures HR, BP, breathing rate and electrical conductivity of the skin (GSR). These are all graphed individually • HR – cuff and monitor around chest • BP – cuff • Breathing rate – tube around stomach • GSR (Galvanic skin response) – effected by moisture (perspiration). Electrodes are taped or clipped to pointer and ring fingers. More moisture means more electricity is conducted. We tend to sweat more when aroused.
Movie: Meet the Parents • Start at Chapter 7 • Q: Is a lie actually detected? No. Conclusion is based on premise that lying heightens arousal which the polygraph can record. • Read last paragraph of 1st column on page 145 • What control questions were asked by Jack? • Why are control questions asked? • What are the 2 different types of control questions? Give examples from the movie. • How are relevant questions different from control questions? • What is the relevant question asked by Jack? • In real life, relevant questions are asked a number of time in different ways. Why?
Arousal & the Polygraph • Brainstorm: Limitations of the polygraph as a lie detector • Lack reliability/validity • Unemotional people may not register • Accuracy is questionable • Guilt emotions are similar to those produced by fear • Can possibly control responses, i.e. cheat the system (Oceans 13) • Summarise the findings of Kleinmuntz and Szuckes (1984) – page 147 • L.A. 2 page 150. • For Question 3, read the article and give 3 reasons why you would/wouldn’t allow polygraph results to be used in court
Stress & prolonged arousal • Quiz: • 1. Stick the Meet the Parents picture in your books and label where HR, BP, breathing rate and GSR is measured • 2. Is a polygraph a lie detector? Why/why not? • 3. What is a control question? • 4. Give an example of both types of control question. • 5. How is arousal linked to the polygraph? • Go through answers to L.A. 2
Stress & prolonged arousal • Brainstorm: • Effects of stress. (What happens when we are stressed?) • Divide terms into physiological (body) and psychological (behavioural/emotional/cognitive) • Worksheet: Stress • Read through together and complete (for homework)
Polygraph, Stress and GAS • Mini-test: Polygraph (Multiple choice only) • Go through answers to Stress Worksheet • Cover thoroughly: • Immune System • GAS • Role and effects of cortisol • Mini-test: GAS (Multiple choice only)
Stress and Disease • Read pages 160-163 • Notes: • Where stress is prolonged and intense, the onset of illness or disease is more likely. • Prolonged stress often leads to increased health problems later in life • Hormones released during fight/flight response suppress functioning of immune system, reducing the ability to fight pathogens • Increases workload on the body due to stress can increase the chances of heart disease, stomach ulcers and cancer • Psychosomatic Illnesses are caused partially or entirely by psychological factors in response to stressors • The illness is real, not imagined • The physical symptoms are genuine
Stress and Disease Links between stress and non-infectious diseases Links between stress and infectious diseases • We cannot say that stress causes disease, but they do appear to be linked in that you are more likely to contract a disease or make an existing disease worse if you’re are experiencing prolonged or intense stress
Stress and Disease • Worksheet: The Relationship Between Stress and Disease • Revision: old exam questions which cover content to date… • Workbook check
The brain and behaviour Chapter 2 Key Knowledge Structure of the cerebral cortex Functions of the four lobes Hemispheric specialisation: the cognitive and behavioural functions Brain research methods and their values and limitations Ethical principles in the conduct of brain research • The cerebral cortex • Hemispheric specialisation • Brain research methods • Ethical principles in brain research
Structure of the Brain • Orange Brain Activity: • Use a couple of students to demonstrate too • Peel an orange (the skull) • Remove a few segments so remainder resembles a brain • Examine surface – thin folded layer (cerebral cortex) • Partially separate the top two segments (hemispheres) • Examine the central line of pith (Corpus callosum) • Sketch and label ‘orange brain’ • Read pages 68-70 and summarise under subheadings, stating which part of the orange represents each section of brain • Ensure students have covered all necessary points – see “orange brain notes”
Brain structure: Lobes • Activity: Brain Jigsaw • Give all students a piece of the brain jigsaw • Student with the same lobe need to read the text and make notes about their lobe • Frontal lobe – page 72 • Parietal lobe – page 76 • Occipital lobe – page 78 • Temporal lobe – page 80 • Each student then needs to find the rest of their coloured brain and share their info about their own lobe
Brain structure: Lobes • Swimming Cap Activity: • Put a swimming cap on a student • Discuss the lobes with the class and how they are divided up • Draw the lobes onto the cap and discuss functions using simplified terminology • Students complete worksheet while discussing, using technical terminology • Have student write down and remember FPOT • Learning Activity 4 on page 77 (verbally) • Learning Activity 5 on page 83 (in books)
Brain structure: Lobes • Learning Activity 8 on page 85 • Construct and table and include a speech sample for both conditions • Learning Activity 6 on page 84 • Questions 3, 4 and 5 • Worksheet: Lobes of the Brain • Complete and colour in • Balloon recreation of orange brain
Brain structure: Lobes • Quiz: • 1. Name the 4 lobes of the brain • 2. Which lobe is usually responsible for processing sensations of touch, pressure, pain, temp of the body? • 3. Which area is usually responsible for producing clear and articulate speech? • 4. What is the primary cortical area of the frontal lobe? • 5. List four functions of the frontal lobe. • 6. Give an example of what may happen if the frontal lobe is damaged. • 7. What is the main function of the temporal lobe? • 8. What do the association areas do? • 9. Where are the association areas found? • 10. What is the name of the specialist cortex in the temporal lobe?
Hemispheric Specialisation • Read pages 85-86 • Notes: • Hemispheric Specialisation is the idea that each hemisphere has particular functions, or exerts greater control over specific functions. • Also called lateralisation. • While particular functions are often associated with one hemisphere of the brain, this is only true for most people. • Psychologists never complete assign a task to one hemisphere or the other – brain plasticity
Hemispheric Specialisation • Activity: Hemispheric mix and match • On the brain diagram, place the following on the hemisphere most commonly associated with that function
Hemispheric Specialisation • Hemispheric specialisation and visual fields • The left visual field of both eyes is transmitted to the right hemisphere • The right visual field of both eyes is transmitted to the left hemisphere
Sperry Split Brain Activities • Read pages 90-91 (Box 6) • Split Brain Activity • Link arms • Left person is the voice (verbal), right person is non-verbal • Tie shoelaces blindfolded – left person can talk throughout task • Object recognition – give both people an object and ask them to identify what it is. • Left can identify verbally • Right can only identify by pointing when blindfold is removed
The Wada Test • Read pages 91-93 • Wada Test Demonstration • Use a student “patient” • Talk them through the procedure and get them to act it out • Used by surgeons to determine which hemispheric location is used to control speech before brain surgery • Anesthetic injected into carotid artery • Patient lies with both arms up • Anesthetic kicks in and opposite arm drops to that anesthetised. • Patient counts to 20 repeatedly, this stops only if the left hemisphere is anesthetised.
The Wada Test • 95% of right-handed people have left controlled speech. • 70% of left-handed people have left controlled speech. • The Wada Test was also used to determine hemispheric specialisation in face recognition. • Anesthetising the right hemisphere caused people to mistake famous faces as their own • Right hemisphere is needed to combine parts of an image for a whole representation
Tachistoscope • Read page 93 • Notes: • A tachistoscope is a projector used to present visual information to each visual field independently. • Speed recorded for images or verbal/word recognition • Non-verbal information is recognised quicker when presented to the right hemisphere (left visual field) • Verbal information is recognised quicker when presented to the left hemisphere (right visual field) • Worksheet: Evidence for Hemispheric Specialisation • LA 10 on page 86
Brain Research Techniques • Notes: • Research on hemispheric specialisation uses three different types of participants: • Brain-damaged (stroke, car accident etc) • Split-brain (corpus callosum is cut) • Intact brain (whole, undamaged, ‘normal’) • Summary Table: • Read and complete the table • Answer the questions in workbook • Try to answer without checking notes, check after
Ethical Principles in Brain Research • Read pages 121-122 • Notes: • Highlight the main principles of VIP • LA 21 on page 123 – Question 1 only • LA 22 on page 123
Brain & NS Revision • Multiple Choice Questions: • Ch 2: The Brain and Behaviour (p124-126) • Ch3: Human Nervous System (p139-140) • Ch 4: Arousal and Stress (p169-170) • Brain & NS Revision Pack • Mini Tests: • Polygraph and GAS • NS, Arousal and Stress • Brain & NS • Area of Study 1
Area of Study 1: Practice Quiz • Which division of the nervous system maintains homeostasis? • What are the two main divisions of the peripheral nervous system? • What is the somatosensory cortex responsible for, and where is it found? • What are analytical functions and generally which side of the brain specialised in these functions? • What is a tachistoscope used for? • What is the Wada Test? • What is meant by informed consent? • What 4 physiological changes are measured by the polygraph? • What is the immune system? • What are the main stages of the GAS? • Name 2 brain imaging techniques for structure, and 2 for function.