翻译 C—— 汉英翻译. “ 洪荒造塔语言殊，从此人间要象胥”。 Babel Tower Old Testament of Holy Bible Genesis 11 .
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翻译C——汉英翻译 “洪荒造塔语言殊，从此人间要象胥”。 Babel Tower Old Testament of Holy Bible Genesis 11
To translate is therefore to let go of your (English) writing in a way, to hold it at arm’s length, open it to scrutiny, allow it to float in the ether (universe) for a while, and to let others, pivot you toward relative truth. (blog) esp. for C-E translation
Lexical relationship between Chinese and English • One-to-one relationship • One-to-none relationship • Pseudo one-to-one relationship • One-to-many or many-to-one or many-to-many relationship
1、这花儿真美。 2、这件衣服太花了。 3、孩子的花儿刚 出过。 4、我的眼早花了。 5、他年轻时是个花花公子。 1. flower 2. multicoloured 3. smallpox 4. nebulous 5. playboy
Translation Criteria/Standards 天竺国俗，甚重文藻，其宫商体韵，以入弦为善。凡觐国王，必有赞德。见佛之仪，以歌叹为尊。经中偈颂，皆其式也。但改梵为秦，失其藻味，虽得大意，殊隔文体，有似嚼饭与人，非徒失味，乃另呕秽也。 （转引自陈福康《中国译学理论史稿》） • 严复： 信、达、雅 • 刘重德：信、达、切 • 鲁迅： 求其易解，保存原作丰姿 • 傅雷： 神似 similarity in spirit • 钱钟书：化境 sublimation • Tytler: 3原则p5
Tytler’s 3 principles • A translation should give a complete transcript of the original work. • The style and manner of writing should be of the same character as that of the original. • A translation should have all the case of the original composition.
Basic Requirements For Translator • The 1st and most obvious requirement of any translator is that he have a satisfactory knowledge of the source language. It is not enough that he be able to get the “general drift “ of the meaning, or that he be adept in consulting dictionaries. Rather, he must understand not only the obvious content of the message, but also the subtleties of meaning , the significant emotive values of words, and the stylistic features which determine the “flavor and feel” of the message. • Even the more important than knowledge of the resources of the source language is a complete control of the receptor language.See ppt2 Certainly the most numerous and serious errors made by translators arise primarily from their lack of thorough knowledge of the TL.
It is one thing, however, to know a language in general and another to have a special knowledge of a particular subject. In other words, in addition to a knowledge of the two or more languages involved in the translation process, the translator must have a thorough acquaintance with the subject matter concerned. • The translator should also have something of the same cultural background as that of the author he is translating. If such is not the case, “the translator should be willing and readily able to make up for this deficiency.” At the same time, a translator must be content to be like his author, for it is not his business to try to excel him.
In translating the Bible, most outstanding translators have also insisted a further requirement, namely, a devout recognition of dependence upon divine grace. • The translator should not only make use of the best scientific philology and exegesis, but also invoke and rely upon divine grace for the fulfillment of his task.
shift of perspective • 不二价 one price • 听电话answer the phone • 太平门emergency exit • 北屋a room with a southern exposure • 座钟a standing clock • 好票a good seat • “冷板凳”队员bench warmer
Full sentence, minor sentence, fragments “……西洋人做文章把语言化零为整，中国人做文章几乎可以说是化整为零。” ----王力 洞庭湖“衔远山，吞长江，浩浩荡荡，横无际涯”。 Carrying distant mountains in the mouth and swallowing Yangtze River, the vast and mighty Donting Lake stretches endlessly. 整合IT市场资源，追求专业化、市场化、规模化、规范化。 We have integrated IT market resources, striving to be specialized and market-oriented with scale and standardization. 经济发达，交通便利以后，频频南调北运，外加塑料大棚养殖什么的，水果上市不分了季节。 As the transportation system had developed and economy had improved in China, fruit could be transported to every corner of the country and, with greenhouses, at any season.
练习 落花生 许地山 我们屋后有半亩隙地。母亲说：“让它荒芜着怪可惜，既然你们那么爱吃花生，就辟来做花生园罢。”我们几姊弟和几个丫头都很喜欢——买种的买种，动土的动土，灌园的灌园，过不了几个月，居然收获了！ 妈妈说：“今晚我们可以做一个收获节，也请你们爹爹来尝尝我们底新花生，如何？”我们都答应了。母亲把花生做成好几样的食品，还吩咐这节期要在花园里底茅亭举行。 那晚上的天色不太好，可是爹爹也到来，实在很难得！爹爹说：“你们爱吃花生吗？”
我们都争着回答：“爱！” “谁能把花生的好处说出来？” 姊姊说：“花生的气味很美。” 哥哥说：“花生可以制油。” 我说：“无论何等人都可以用贱价买它来吃；都喜欢它。这就是它的好处。”
Version Peanuts By Xu Dishan There was a small piece of open land behind our house. One day, mother said to us, “it’s a pity to leave it lying waste. Since you are so fond of peanuts, let’s turn it into a peanut garden.” Hearing that, we kids and the little maids were so delighted that we set about working immediately. Some went to buy the seeds, some broke ground and others watered the garden. To our happy surprise, several months later we had a real harvest.
The harvest over, mother suggested, “what about holding a celebration of our harvest this evening and inviting your Daddy to have a taste of our newly-reaped peanuts?” To this we all agreed. Mother prepared many kinds of peanut food and told us to hold the celebration in the thatched pavilion in the garden . The sky was not so clear that evening. But to our great pleasure, we had Daddy with us. He asked us, “do you like peanuts?” We all rushed to the answer, “Yes!”
“Who can tell us the advantage of peanuts?” My elder sister said, “They taste good.” “We can extract oil from them,” was my elder brother’s reply. I said, “They are so inexpensive that everyone can afford them and like them. That’s their advantage.”
练习 那女娲氏炼石 补天之时，与大荒山无稽崖，炼成高十二丈，见方二十四丈的顽石三万六千五百零一块。 Version When the goddess Nu Wa melted down rocks to repair the sky at Baseless Cliff in the Great Waste Mountain, she made thirty-six five hundred and one blocks of stone, each a hundred and twenty feet high and two hundred and forty feet square.
练习 那些卖酒的青帘高扬，卖菜的红炭满炉，仕女游人，络绎不绝，真不数“三十六家花酒店，七十二做管弦楼。” Version Dark trade-signs flutter above the wineshops, and red charcoal glows in the tea-house stories, while men and women stream by, on pleasure bent, to throng the countless taverns and music halls.
Version Situated on the southeast China coast, Fujian Province used to be an economically backward province small in population and poor in natural resources. But this has changed since the start of the reform in the late 70s. Taking full advantage of the special polices granted by the central government, Fujian Province has taken the initiative in breaking through traditional economic structure and moving toward a market economy. The substantial progress achieved has efficiently facilitated a rapid development in Fujian’s economy and society and made it possible for the province to leap to the leading position together with a few other provinces in the country in terms of economic growth rate and GDP.The deepening of reform and new leaps in economy are all in urgent need of science and quality personnel to back up.
Version This has provided a challenge as well as an opportunity for Fuzhou University, a university of science and engineering, concentrating mainly on engineering, the only local university of its type in Fujian Province. To keep pace with the reform and the rapid economic development in the province, Fuzhou University is now on its development fast lane.
Version The past 40 years, especially the past 20 years, have seen the number of students enrolled jump from less than 2000 in 1978 to more than 10,000 today and specialties offered cover almost all the economic and industrial sectors and fields in the province. A variegated pattern of school running has been created which includes graduate education, undergraduate education, short 2-to-3-year higher education programs, adult education and education programs for overseas students. As a result, the university has entered the list of 100 selected universities in China with additional resources for further development.
Version At the age of sixteen, Bai Juyi went to Chang’an, the imperial capital, bringing with him his poems, to see an old poet, Gu Kuang, hoping to get his guidance. Seeing he was only a child, Gu Kuang did not take him seriously and said jokingly about “”Juyi (meaning literally “easy (yi) to live (ju)”) on the manuscript, “Rice here in Chang’an is expensive. It’s not ‘yi’ to ‘ju’”. But he exclaimed, tapping his desk approvingly when he came upon such lines: No prairie fire can burn it utterly, The spring wind brings it back to life again. His while tone immediately changed and he said seriously, “A man who can write such wonderful lines won’t find it difficult to live here. Pardon me for joking.” Soon the name Bai Juyi was widely known.
词性和语态之间的转换Shift between parts of speech and voices • v.- n. 他喜欢在晚饭后静静地抽支烟。 He likes a quiet smoke after supper. 他在讲话中特别强调提高产品质量。 In his speech he laid special stress on raising the quality of the products. 林则徐认为，要成功地禁止鸦片买卖，就得首先把鸦片焚毁了。 Lin Zexu believed that a successful ban of the opium trade must be preceded by the destruction of the drug itself.
你一定很不善于学习，要不然就是教你的人很不会教。你一定很不善于学习，要不然就是教你的人很不会教。 You must be a very bad learner, or else you must be going to a very bad teacher. Exceptional cases: n.-v. 他的讲演给听众的印象很深。 His speech impressed the audience deeply. 他在最后的一幕里占了很突出的地位。 She figured prominently in the last act.
V.--adj. (表示知觉、情感等心理状态） 1、获悉日本遭受大地震，我们极为关切。 We are deeply concerned at the news that Japan has been struck by the devastating earthquake. 2.、他们怀疑他是否负担得起。 They are doubtful whether he can afford it. • Adv—v 匆匆地下结论 jump to a conclusion 偷偷地看一眼 steal a glance 急忙赶来相助 rush to help 他笑着同意了。He smiled his consent.
Shift between voices (汉语重思维形态的主体性，主体“尽在不言中”。汉语主动---英语被动） 饭在锅里，我在屋里。 The meal has been prepared and I’m waiting for you in the bedroom. 如果开支确属必要，钱总是可以筹到的。 If the expenditure is really necessary, the money can be found/fund can be raised somehow.
v.-prep. 这种人闹什么东西呢？闹名誉，闹地位，闹出风头。 What are these people after? They are after fame and position and want to be in the limelight. 有人给他撑腰。 He has someone behind him. 他是一个脱离了低级趣味的人。 He is a man above vulgar interests.
练习 社会透视：劝君别再凑热闹 一个扒手的自白 “人堆是我们作案的主要场所，一来人多了我们好下手，二来这些人往往只顾热闹、轧闹猛，对自己所带钱物很少注意，因此我们很容易得手。” “到了街上，你不用愁找不到人堆，猴子耍把戏，卖狗皮膏药的，还有其他各种滩头的前面，都可以找到看热闹的人。即使一时没有地摊，你也不用愁，街上骑车的、走路的这么多，总有相撞一下，或口角一下的，这样又可以有人堆了。实在没有人堆，可以制造。只要两个人以假乱真，打上一架，保证马上有成百人围观。”
Version A Perspective on Society: Please don’t join in the fun A Pickpocket’s Confession Crowded places are where we choose to pick and steal because it’s easy for us to start among a crowd and those people are so deep in the fun(what’s going on there) that they pay little attention to their purses and wallets. Our attempts can always come off without fail ( we get things /our job done easily).
Version In the street , it will never be difficult to find some crowds. There are curious crowds gathering in front of (around) jugglers (monkey shows), quacks(charlatans; mountebanks selling quack medicines) and stalls of all sorts. (In the street, you can always find crowds such as spectators around a circus, standers-by(bystanders) around a medicine peddler or onlookers before various stalls.) I never feel worried without them. There are so much traffic (so many people walking or riding bicycles) in the street and things like clashes and quarrels always happen. They can attract crowds of onlookers. Crowds can even be made.(If you are not lucky enough to find a crowd, you can make one.) If two persons start a pretended fight, I’m sure there will be hundreds of people gathering and watching. (A pretended fight will be enough to attract hundreds of people)
练习 黎明前的北平 天气一天比一天寒冷。北海公园的湖上已结了厚厚的冰层，马路两旁树木上的叶子已经落尽，只有光秃秃的树枝在寒风中瑟瑟颤抖着。 北平已被强大的人民解放军包围，城门紧闭，粮食、蔬菜、鱼肉都运不进来。我们吃着早已准备的酱萝卜，有时也用黄豆泡豆芽。
最后，沉默的空气还是被打破了。许多人纷纷发言，热烈希望傅作义将军以北平人民的安全和保护故都文化胜迹为重，尽量争取早日和平解放北平。最后，沉默的空气还是被打破了。许多人纷纷发言，热烈希望傅作义将军以北平人民的安全和保护故都文化胜迹为重，尽量争取早日和平解放北平。 傅作义将军一直耐心而认真地听着大家的发言。最后，他站起来，表示感谢大家直言不讳。 会后，人们奔走相告，感到北平和平解放的希望越来越大，漫长的黑夜终于即将过去。
Version Peking before Dawn It was getting colder and colder. The lake in Beihai Park was already covered with a thick layer of ice. Trees on both sides of the road were stripped of all their leaves, leaving only their bare branches shivering in the icy wind.
Peking was then besieged by the mighty People’s Liberation Army. All the city gates were shut tight (strongly guarded), (shutting out all the food that was to come into the city)making it impossible to transport any food (grain, vegetable, meat and fish) from outside. Owing to the dwindling sources of food in the city, what we had for dishes were only (pickles)pickled radish which was prepared long before, and sometimes sprouts made of soybeans.
Every now and then came the thundering of cannons fired by the PLA. In the city, there were still a large contingent of Kuomingtang Troops in garrison. Stricken animals as they were, they might (endanger)bring about great loss of people’s lives and properties if they continued to resist desperately. General Fu Zuoyi, then the commander of the troops, was placed in a dilemma whether to surrender to the PLA or put up a desperate fight at the sacrifice of the city and the people. In an attempt to find a way out, he invited some distinguished scholars and celebrities in Peking to meet with him for their suggestions and advices.
The meeting was held in Zhongnanhai, then the headquarters of Fu’s troops, with an unusual tension permeating the air. To start with , General Fu expressed in his brief opening speech his willingness to hear all kinds of opinions from those present. But after his speech, the whole room fell into silence.( his speech was followed by an unusual silence). For a very long time, the only sound to be heard was the ticking of the wall clock. Glances of doubt and inquiry were exchanged and it was obvious that no one dared to speak because of the fear that they might be taking a great risk if they made any suggestion about giving up resistance.
Finally, someone found his voice to speak, breaking the silence and bringing the meeting to life. The participants, one after another, spoke to express their hope that General Fu would, valuing above everything else the safety of the people and the preservation of cultural and historical sites in the ancient capital, exert his efforts to do something for an earlier and peaceful liberation of Peking. All the while, General Fu listened with patience and attention. In the end, he stood up to express his appreciation to all the participants for their unreserved frankness.
The news spread around soon after the meeting. People in Peking were more and more assured that their hope for a peaceful liberation would come true and a long night of darkness would soon depart and a promising dawn was coming.
Culture: 1. The customs, beliefs, art, music, and all the other products of human thought made by a particular group of people at a particular time. e.g.: ancient Greek culture, a tribal culture pop culture • Artistic and other activity of the mind and the works produced by this.
文化定义 • 1、人类在社会历史发展过程中所创造的物质财富和精神财富的总和。特别是精神财富，如文学、艺术、教育、科学等。 • 2、考古学用语，指同一个历史时期的不依分布地点为转移的遗迹、遗物的综合体。同样的工具、用具，同样的制造技术等，是同一种文化的特征，如： 仰韶文化、龙山文化 • 3、指运用语言文字的能力及一般的知识，如： 文化水平、学文化
Leo Loveday, an American sociolinguist It does not refer to theatre going or the possession of a refrigerator. It refers to something rather abstract and difficult to grasp immediately as one is part of it. It involves the implicit norms and conventions of a society, its methods of going about doing things, its historically transmitted but also adaptive and creative ethos, its symbols and its organization of experience.
Culture is a historical phenomenon 龟 蛤蟆 a toad lusting after a swan’s flesh Elevation vs. degeneration • Culture is a geographical phenomenon green hat/cap: an Aussie’s experience 龙 She was guarded by a woman obviously her mother, who tried to stare Hagan down with a cold arrogance that made him want to punch her in the face. The angel child and the dragon mother, Hagan thought, returning the mother’s cold stare. ( The Godfather p54)
十里蛙声不断，九溪曲流不断。 You can hear frog’s continuous crying in ten miles and can enjoy the babbling of the winding streams. • 别以为熊猫长得都一样，娇娇是特别的漂亮。 You may think pandas look all alike, but Jiaojiao is particularly beautiful. • 爱屋及乌 Love me, love my dog. dog red
The same is true of translation theory. It is not necessary for everyone to know translation theory, nor is it even necessary for pastors and teachers to know everything about translation theory. • It is necessary for pastors and teachers in the American church at the end of the twentieth century to know something about translation theory, for two reasons.
First, it will affect the way we interpret the Bible for our people. If we are completely unaware of translation theory, we may unwittingly mislead our brothers and sisters in our interpretation. Second, there are so many English translations available, that no contemporary pastor will be able to escape the inevitable questions about which translations are superior.
译文评价及改进 • “Farewell, Mr.Jack, ” said the Doctor, standing up, on which we all stood up. “A prosperous voyage out, a thriving career abroad, and a happy return home!” “一路平安，杰克先生，”博士站起来说道，于是我们大家都站起来了。“在路上一个顺利的航程，在国外一种的事业，在将来一个快活的还乡！” “再见，杰克先生，”博士站起来说道，于是我们大家都站起来了。“祝您航程顺利！在海外事业发达/繁荣！早日衣锦还乡！”