33.3 American Society in a Conservative Age Objective: To understand the social and economic changes that occurred in society during the presidencies of Reagan and Bush Essential Question: What were the effects of the new conservative movement in American politics
Key Terms • AIDS • Pay equity • L. Douglas Wilder • Jesse Jackson • Affirmative Action
Women’s Issues in the 1980s • Political Gains • Movement set back by the defeat of the ERA • Shift to trying to elect women to political office • Geraldine Ferraro’s - VP nomination • Congresswomen increased from 28-47 during 1980s • Were still under represented in politics • Economic Gains • Still earned less then Men 76 cents to a dollar • 31% of female heads of household lived in poverty- higher for minorities • Pay Equity was enforced in gov. work- not necessarily the private sector • Some companies started to give more flexible hours and other benefits to mothers ex. Maternity Leave • These policies were not initiated by the Reagan and Bush administrations
African American Political Gains • Rise in political participation • Mayors of Detroit, Los Angeles, Chicago, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Atlanta, and Washington D.C. • 1990 L. Douglas Wilder- VA governor • 1st African American Governor • Jesse Jackson runs for Democratic nomination in 1984 and 1988 • What other issues were African Americans facing during the 1980s?
African Americans in the Reagan Economy • Political wins didn’t necessarily transfer into economic gains • Income gap rose throughout decade peaking in 1988 • Middle Class grew and moved into managerial and professional positions • Poor faced diminishing opportunities • Reaganomics = welfare cuts • Richmond v. J.A. Croson Company • Reversed previous court endorsement of Affirmative Action “There’s a finite pie and everybody wants his piece. Everybody is afraid of losing his piece of the pie. That’s what the fight against Affirmative Action is all about. People feel threatened. As for blacks they’re passé. They’re not in anymore. Nobody wants to talk about race.” -Sylvester Monroe
Latinos • Fastest growing minority group during 1980s • Currently largest minority group in the US • Gained political power • Toney Anaya- NM Governor • Robert Martinez- FL Governor • Promoted to prominent positions in Reagan and Bush administrations • Native Americans • Victim to budget cuts • Advocated against bans on gambling • Las Vegas style casinos • Asian Americans • 2nd fastest growing minority group in U.S. • Significant economic advances, little interest in political power • “Model Minority” • Gays and Lesbians • Began to advocate for their rights • AIDS epidemic • George H.W. Bush increased funding for AIDS research • Penalties for homosexuality were reduced in many states
James G. Watts “We have every kind of mix you can have. I have a black, I have a woman, two Jews and a cripple.”- James G. Watts, Secretary of the Interior – 1981-1983
Quiz 33.3 • Replaced traditional pay scales for government workers, but rarely in the private sector • He became gov. of Virginia in 1990. • African American who ran for president both in 1984 and 1988 as a Democrat • Policy designed to reverse the effects of discrimination • This was the fastest growing minority group in the United States during the 1980s.